Geo101.04.Minerals

Geo101.04.Minerals - Categories of Earths Materials...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 Categories of Earth’s Materials • Minerals • Metals • Rocks • Melts • Glasses • Organics • Volatiles ? Question of the Day ? On Tuesday, I made the point that Stars are element factories, and that elements like H and He can be created in Stars like our Sun, heavier elements to Fe in stars much larger than our Sun, whereas, elements heavier than Fe require the immense pressure / energy of a Supernova. Question: Are there other processes in which certain elements can be created anywhere (naturally, not in a laboratory), including right here on Earth? If so, how? Question at large… Mg 2 and Fe 2 , Fe 3 Why? Alkaline Earth Metals The alkaline earth metals comprising Group 2 elements of the Periodic Chart ( Be , Mg , Ca , Sr, Ba, Ra ). All the alkaline earth metals have two electrons in their outermost shell, so the energetically preferred state of achieving a ±lled electron shell is to lose two electrons to form doubly charged positive ions. Transition Metals Ions of the transition elements (eg. Fe ) may have multiple stable oxidation states, since they can lose d electrons without a high energetic penalty. (e.g. Mn has two 4 s electrons and ±ve 3 d electrons, which can be removed. Loss of all of these electrons leads to a +7 oxidation state.) Periodic Table
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 Two things about the Periodic Table The primary determinant of an elements chemical properties is the electron conFguration, particularly its outermost electrons (those in the valence shell). In the periodic table, a period is represented by a row. The number of electron shells an atom has determined what period it belongs to. ….a group is represented by vertical column. The number of electrons in the outermost shell determines the group. Question 1 A toms that have the same number of protons but a different number of electrons are called ______. A) isotopes B) isomeres C) ions D) anatoms Question 2 An ion is an atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more electrons, making it positively or negatively charged. An ion that has fewer electrons in its electron shells than it has protons in its nuclei , is positively charged and is known as ________. A) Isotope B) Cation C) Onion D) Anion Question 3 An ion is an atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more electrons, making it positively or negatively charged. Conversely, an ion that has more electrons in its electron shells than it has protons in its nuclei , is negatively charged and is known as ________. A) Isotope B) Cation C) Onion D) Anion Question 4 A toms that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons in their nucleus are called ________. A)
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 12/28/2009 for the course 460 101 taught by Professor Swisher during the Fall '09 term at Rutgers.

Page1 / 13

Geo101.04.Minerals - Categories of Earths Materials...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online