Part_2_Protocol_Layered_Architecture

Part_2_Protocol_Layered_Architecture - Layered Architecture...

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EE450, USC, Zahid 1 Layered Architecture and Network Protocols EE450: Introduction to Computer Networks Professor A. Zahid
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EE450, USC, Zahid 2 Protocols Human Protocols: z what’s the time? z I have a question z Introductions … specific msgs sent … specific actions taken when msgs received, or other events Network Protocols: z Machines rather than humans z All communication activity in Internet governed by protocols Protocols define format, order of msgs sent and received among network entities, and actions taken on msg transmission, receipt
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EE450, USC, Zahid 3 Human vs. Network Protocols Hi Hi Got the time? 2:00 TCP connection request TCP connection reply <file> time Get http://www.usc.com/grades.html
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EE450, USC, Zahid 4 Key Elements of a Protocol z Syntax z Data formats, compression, encryption, etc. . z Signal levels z Semantics z Control information such as flow & congestion z Error detection and control mechanisms z Timing z Speed matching z Sequencing z Fairness
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EE450, USC, Zahid 5 Standards z Required to allow for interoperability between equipment z Advantages z Ensures a large market for equipment and software z Allows products from different vendors to communicate z Disadvantages z Freeze technology
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EE450, USC, Zahid 6 OSI Reference Model
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EE450, USC, Zahid 7 Data Transfer in OSI
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EE450, USC, Zahid 8 Layered Communications z Peer layers communicate via protocols z Adjacent layers communicate via service interfaces z Protocol control information (PCI) is added to Service data unit (SDU) at each layer to form a Protocol data unit (PDU) z (SDU) N = (PDU) N+1 z (PDU) N = (SDU) N +(PCI) N
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EE450, USC, Zahid 9 Why Layering? Dealing with complex systems: z explicit structure allows identification, relationship of complex system’s pieces z layered reference model for discussion z Modularization eases maintenance, updating of system z change of implementation of layer’s service transparent to rest of system z change in one layer doesn’t affect rest of system
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EE450, USC, Zahid 10 Summary of Layers Functionality
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EE450, USC, Zahid 11 The Internet and TCP/IP
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EE450, USC, Zahid 12 Internet Protocol Stack z Application: supporting network applications z FTP, SMTP, HTTP z Transport: process-process data transfer z TCP, UDP z Network: routing of datagrams from source to destination z IP, routing protocols z Link: data transfer between neighboring network elements z
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Part_2_Protocol_Layered_Architecture - Layered Architecture...

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