Midterm HIST 1301

Midterm HIST 1301 - CHAPTER 1 What do archeological studies...

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CHAPTER 1 What do archeological studies suggest about Native Americans? 4 Evolved into separate cultures, adjusting to various environments in different ways. Switched from a nomadic to an agricultural lifestyle; traded. Did they engage in trade? If so how far? 5 Yes; all over the Americas (regional trading networks) What groups made up the League of Iroquois? 9 Mohawk, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas; shared materials contrasted to the Europeans. What were the sources of conflict between the Europeans and the Native Americans? 10 Relationship to the environment (secular for Europeans and sacred for Native Americans), meaning of property and personal identity. What things did they view differently? How did the Indians view the land and the environment? 11 Land, leadership b/w men and women, trading (Indians-preserve reciprocity b/w individuals and communites; Europeans-economic transaction), religion; that it is sacred and should be shared (communal ownership). What are the characteristics of a matrilineal indian society? 11 Family membership was determined through the female line. How did Native Americans express religious beliefs? 12 Polytheism; Religious leaders (shamans) used medicinal plants and magical chants to communicate with the spiritual world. What motivated European leaders to expand? 20 Economic revival and the reversal of population decline and civil disorder nourished the impulse to expand; Renaissance culture also encouraged expansion. 1. To circumvent overland Muslim traders by finding an eastward oceanic route to Asia. 2. To tap the African gold trade at its source, avoiding Muslim middlemen in North Africa. Which country led the age of exploration? 21 Portugal What was the quadrant? 21 Invented in the 1450s, allowed a precise measurement of star altitude necessary for determining latitude, represented a leap forward in navigation; allowed navigators to fix their position at sea on a map by measuring the position of the stars.
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CHAPTER 2 What geographical areas did Spain and Portugal focus their expansion efforts? 27 Spain-westward across the Atlantic; Portugal-southward toward West Africa and eastward to East Asia. What was the result of Portuguese and Spanish commercial efforts? 28 Commercial center shifted from the ports of Mediterranean to Atlantic ports. What did Martin Luther think about good works? 28 They did not earn grace; only external evidence of faith. How would you describe the doctrines of John Calvin? 29 God saved a few soul before Creation and damned the rest; predestination could not be altered; behave as one of God’s elect, the “saints” in order to receive grace. What did they offer society? 29 Self discipline and social control; elect controlled the states (presbyteries). How extensive was Spanish exploration one generation after Columbus's death? 30-1
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Midterm HIST 1301 - CHAPTER 1 What do archeological studies...

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