Bio Terms - B io Terms EXAM 1 Meiosis and Sexual Life...

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Bio Terms EXAM 1 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles 1. Heredity – The transmission of traits from one generation to the next 2. Variation – Differences between members of the same species 3. Genetics – The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation 4. Gene – A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA 5. Asexual Reproduction – The generation of offspring from a single parent that occurs without the fusion of gametes. Offspring genetically identical to the parent 6. Clone – A single individual organism that is genetically identical to another individual 7. Sexual Reproduction – A type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the gametes of the two parents. 8. Life Cycle – The generation to generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism 9. Somatic Cells – Any cell in a multi-cellular organism except a sperm of egg cell 10. Syngamy – Fertilization of an egg and sperm (formation of a zygote) 11. Autosomes – A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex ; not a sex chromosome 12. Haploid Cells – A cell containing only one set of chromosomes ( n ) 13. Diplod Cells – A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2 n ), one set inherited from each parent 14. Fertilization – The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote 15. Homologous Chromosomes – A pair of chromosomes of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci 16. Zygote – The diploid product of the union of haploid gametes during fertilization; a fertilized egg 17. Alternation of Generations – A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte 18. Synapsis – The pairing and physical connection of replicated homologous chromosome during prophase I of meiosis 19. Tetrad - a group of four chromatids formed by synapsis at the beginning of meiosis
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20. Chiasma (plural: Chiasmata ) – The X-shaped, microscopically visible region where homologous nonsister chromatids have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meiosis 21. Crossing Over – The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis 22. Random Segregation - During meiosis the two separated partners of a chromosome pair are distributed randomly to the reproductive cells gametes, each gamete having an equal chance of receiving either chromosome Mendelian Genetics 1. Character – An observable heritable feature 2. Trait – Any detectable variant in a genetic character 3. True-Breeding – Referring to plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self-pollinate 4. Hybridization – The mating, or crossing, of two true-breeding varieties 5. Monohybrid Cross – Mating of two homozygous parents for different alleles
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This note was uploaded on 12/31/2009 for the course SPN 312K taught by Professor All during the Spring '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Bio Terms - B io Terms EXAM 1 Meiosis and Sexual Life...

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