This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: History symbiosis is an association between two or more species. We can separate into three categories. Parasites usually don't kill their hosts. It's usually pretty ancient. The more ancient it is the more beneficial it is. Aphids provide essential amino acids is obiligatory. The sea slug is green because it has choloroplasts from the algea it eats. They undergo photosynthesis that the slug uses. Lichens are on the rocks and consists of a fungus and algae in obligatory relationship. But it's not the only one. Humans are symbiots. Symbiosis is one of the most major thiemes in modern biology oalmsot as important as evolution. For ex. mito or cholorplasts. when things live together, they start to share genes. Laterlal gene transfers. Strange genes comef rom under organisms. Issue in Nature by Dr. Lake has a theory that gram - bacteria is an ancient symbiotic between two bacteria and that's why it has a double membrane. DNK. Humans are obligatory symbiotic association of euk, arch, and bact cells. In your intestiines, there is probably 1 kilo of nonhuman cells. There is more bact cells than human cells. If you take too many antibiotics, you get ill from loss of microflora. A fact is an observation that fits into a paradigm. It's a theory plus the world view that comes with it. For ex: evolution, DNA/RNA/Genomes/Proteins. There's always observations that dont' fit called anomalies that we usually ignore them. When the number of anomalies are too much, they think of new theories to understand the anomalies. Paradigm shift. Cell biology examples of paradigm shifts. Robert hook. He built his own microscope. he looked at cork and coined the word cells. These were observations and not paradigms yet. Leeuwenhoeck made his own microscopes. There was no theory of cells or anything. Example of observations without a paradigm. Paradigms couldn't be formed until people could see things. Achromatic lens corrected abberrations. It was sold to everyone. Robert Brown saw a cell nucleus for the first time. They see cells everywhere. Led to the cell theory. Apochromatic lens reached the theorietical light resolution. Cells come from cells is part of the Genetic Theory. Pasteur proved he could make bacteria de novo. Patrick Manson learned of something called elephantiasis that is caused by worms. This was the first correlation of the illness behavior of a host with the feeding behavior of an animal. Ross wanted to find the cause of malaria. He bred mosquitos in his lab and feed on the patient. Disect the mosquitos. He wrote letters to Manson He changed the focus and got black pigment. Whichis also found in malaraia cells. ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 12/31/2009 for the course MIMG 168 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at UCLA.
- Fall '08