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3. Identify four types of
4. Describe conditions when
are preferred over individuals.
5. Specify the characteristics of effective
can create team players.
7. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of diversity to work
how management can keep
from becoming stagnant and rigid.
Few trends have influenced employee jobs as much as the massive movement to introduce
into the workplace. The shift from working alone to working on
requires employees to
cooperate with others, share information, confront differences, and sublimate personal interests for
the greater good of the team.
have been found to have common characteristics. The work that the members do
provide freedom and autonomy, the opportunity to utilize different skills and talents, the
ability to complete a whole and identifiable task or product, and doing work that has a substantial
impact on others. The team requires individuals with technical expertise, as well as problem-
solving, decision-making, and interpersonal skills; and high scores on the personality
characteristics of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability.
are neither too large or too small; typically, they range in size from 5–12 people.
They have members who fill role demands, are flexible, and who prefer to be part of a group. They
also have adequate resources, effective leadership, and a performance evaluation and reward
system that reflects team contributions. Finally, effective
have members committed to a
common purpose, specific team goals, members who believe in the team’s capabilities, a
manageable level of conflict, and a minimal degree of social loafing.
and societies attract and reward individual accomplishment,
it is more difficult to create team players in these environments. To make the conversion,
try to select individuals with the interpersonal skills to be effective team
players, provide training to develop teamwork skills, and reward individuals for cooperative efforts.
are mature and performing effectively, management’s job is not over. This is because
can become stagnant and complacent. Managers need to support mature
with advice, guidance, and training if these
are to continue to improve.