FROM CONCEPT TO APPLICATIONS
After studying this chapter, students should be able to:
Identify the four ingredients common to MBO programs.
Explain why managers might want to use employee involvement programs.
Contrast participative management with employee involvement.
Explain how ESOPs can increase employee motivation.
Contrast gainsharing and profit sharing.
Describe the link between skill-based pay plans and motivation theories.
Explain how flexible benefits turn benefits into motivators.
Contrast the challenges of motivating professional employees versus low-skilled employees.
10. Contrast the challenges in motivating professional employees with temporary workers.
We have presented a number of motivation theories and applications in this and the previous chapter. While it is
always dangerous to synthesize a large number of complex ideas into a few simple guidelines, the following
suggestions summarize the essence of what we know about motivating employees in organizations.
Recognize individual differences
. Employees have different needs. Do not treat them all alike. Moreover, spend
the time necessary to understand what is important to each employee. This will allow you to individualize goals,
level of involvement, and rewards to align with individual needs.
Use goals and feedback.
Employees should have hard, specific goals, as well as feedback on how well they are
faring in pursuit of those goals.
Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them.
Employees can contribute to a number of
decisions that affect them: setting work goals, choosing their own benefits packages, solving productivity and
quality problems, and the like. This can increase employee productivity, commitment to work goals, motivation,
and job satisfaction.
Link rewards to performance.
Rewards should be contingent on performance. Importantly, employees must
perceive a clear linkage. Regardless of how closely rewards are actually correlated to performance criteria, if
individuals perceive this relationship to be low, the results will be low performance, a decrease in job satisfaction,
and an increase in turnover and absenteeism statistics.
Check the system for equity.
Rewards should also be perceived by employees as equating with the inputs they
bring to the job. At a simplistic level, this should mean that experience, skills, abilities, effort, and other obvious
inputs should explain differences in performance and, hence, pay, job assignments, and other obvious rewards.
At the end of each chapter of this instructor’s manual you will find suggested exercise and ideas for researching
the WWW on OB topics.
The exercises “Exploring OB Topics on the Web” are set up so that you can simply
photocopy the pages, distribute them to your class, and make assignments accordingly.
You may want to assign
the exercises as an out-of-class activity or as lab activities with your class.
Within the lecture notes the graphic