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5.Slides - Self-handicapping Self-handicapping Setting up...

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Unformatted text preview: Self-handicapping Self-handicapping Setting up or reporting barriers to Setting performance performance Vs. the self-serving bias Two types: Reported self-handicapping Behavioral self-handicapping Conditions that lead to self-handicapping Basking in Reflected Glory Seeing yourself as a reflection of your Seeing group’s success group’s Cialdini (1976) – what students wore to Cialdini school on the Monday after a football game school After a win, more likely to wear school’s After insignia insignia Also, “cutting off reflected failure” Ways we learn about ourselves Ways Social comparisons Temporal comparisons Counterfactual comparisons Social comparison Social Comparing yourself to someone else Upward vs. Downward comparisons Upward Downward consolation Downward Upward action, self-improvement Upward Temporal comparisons Temporal The way things are now vs. the way The they used to be they Upward – “I was a much better athlete Upward in high school” in Downward – “I used to be a loser in Downward high school, but I’m popular now” high Downward consolation Downward Upward action, self-improvement Upward Counterfactual comparisons Counterfactual Comparing what “is” to “what might Comparing have been” have Upward – comparing reality to a Upward better alternative better Downward – comparing reality to a Downward worse alternative worse The Appollonia example Counterfactual comparisons Counterfactual Upward vs. Downward comparisons comparisons Comparisons most likely: Under uncertainty When there’s something wrong Solutions: Change the situation or change Solutions: your mind your Positive Illusions Positive Most people hold positive illusions Most about themselves about 1. 2. 3. Positive views Optimism Perceptions of control How do I compare to my peers? How Ability % rating themselves as “above average” Ability to get along with others Leadership Writing skills Speaking skills Athletics 89% 70% 64% 63% 60% How do I compare to my peers? How “Easy” abilities Using a mouse Driving Riding bicycle Saving money 59 65 64 62 “Difficult” abilities Telling jokes Playing chess Juggling Computer Computer programming programming 46 28 27 25 Why? Egocentrism Positive views of self Positive Positive self-evaluations are stronger for Positive ambiguous traits ambiguous Ambiguous traits Talented Thoughtful Tough Sensitive Eccentric Unambiguous traits Athletic Well-read Poised Studious Neat Unrealistic optimism Unrealistic We believe that good things are more We likely to happen to us and bad things are less likely to happen to us less How likely, compared to my peers? How Positive events Getting a good job Making a good salary Owning a home Negative events Serious car accident Getting a divorce Fired from a job Contracting heart Contracting disease disease Why? Egocentrism Illusion of Control Illusion Perceiving more control than we actually Perceiving have have Common in gambling Self-esteem issues Self-esteem High self-esteem self-enhancement High Low self-esteem self-protection Low The Power of Symbols The Feelings about self can be inferred in different Feelings ways ways Christenfeld et al. (1999) Positive initials: ACE, GOD, HUG, JOY, LIF, Positive LIV, LOV, LUV, VIP, WEL, WIN, WOW LIV, Negative initials: APE, ASS, BAD, BUG, Negative BUM, DED, DIE, DTH, DUD, HOG, ILL, MAD, PIG, RAT, ROT, SAD, SIC, SIK, UGH MAD, Neutral initials: Everyone else (control Neutral group) group) Results Results For men: Positive group lived 4.5 years longer than controls Positive longer Negative group lived 2.8 years fewer than controls Negative fewer For women: Positive group lived 3.4 years longer than controls Positive longer No difference between negative group and controls Different causes of death ...
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