6.Slides - Another way of learning about ourselves:...

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Unformatted text preview: Another way of learning about ourselves: Self-perception Self-perception Make inferences about ourselves by Make looking at our own behavior looking Facial Feedback Hypothesis Facial (Strack, Martin, & Stepper,1988) Sometimes our feelings are influenced Sometimes by our own bodily behavior Pen in the mouth and then rate Pen cartoons cartoons Stepper and Strack (1993) Stepper Taking an Taking achievement test at different tables different The Situation The Situation – Anything outside of the person The “power of the situation” and how we The underestimate it underestimate Violating social norms Norms Norms Definition: Informal rules that groups Informal adopt to regulate group members’ behavior behavior We can identify norms easily when We they are violated they Sanctions exist to punish those who Sanctions do not comply do Descriptive Norms Descriptive Information about what people Information commonly do in a situation commonly Usually communicated implicitly, by Usually merely observing others’ behavior merely People look for descriptive norms People when they are uncertain when Pluralistic Ignorance Pluralistic A descriptive norm is formed, but one descriptive that’s inconsistent with everyone’s beliefs or feelings beliefs But everyone still conforms to this But norm norm Example: Possible emergencies Pluralistic Ignorance Pluralistic Smoke-Filled Room Study (Latané & Darley, 1968) Darley, Three conditions: Sitting alone in room Sitting with two other participants Sitting with two passive confederates Results Results Dependent variable = % of participants Dependent who report the smoke within 6 minutes: who Alone – 75% With Participants – 38% (by any of them) With Confederates – 10% Injunctive Norms Injunctive What behavior is What generally approved or disapproved of in a situation in Can be either Can explicit or implicit explicit Strong vs. weak situations Strong Strong situations demand people act Strong in particular ways in Weak situations allow people to Weak behave in many different ways behave Implications Implications We don’t think about social norms too We much, and we underestimate the power norms have over us power Norms can often be very subtle Luck and Superstition Is luck a product of the person or the Is situation? situation? Superstitions – ways of trying to improve Superstitions our luck and control our environment our Gallup Poll (1996) with 1,000 Americans People who admitted being at least a little People superstitious: 53% superstitious: Somewhat or very superstitious: 25% People who possess at least one good luck People charm: 72% charm: Luck Luck Some people seem to be generally Some “lucky” or “unlucky” “lucky” Could luck be a product of the Could person? “Luck favors the prepared mind.” “The harder I work, the luckier I get.” Wiseman (2003) Wiseman Placed ads asking for “lucky” and Placed “unlucky” individuals “unlucky” 400 people answered Wiseman tested everyone with Wiseman questionnaires, interviews, diaries and experiments experiments Wiseman (2003) Wiseman Few had insights into why they Few why were lucky or unlucky were Lucky people: Were skilled at creating and noticing chance Were opportunities opportunities Made good decisions by listening to their Made intuitions intuitions Created self-fulfilling prophecies via their Created positive expectations positive Adopted a resilient attitude that transformed Adopted bad luck into good luck bad Chance Opportunities Chance Lucky participants made efforts to ucky introduce variety into their lives introduce Experiencing new people and situations Experiencing creates new opportunities creates Unlucky participants were more anxious Anxiety makes people less likely to notice Anxiety the unexpected the Anxiety increases superstitious behavior Anxiety Dealing with Bad Luck Dealing When something negative happened, When lucky participants made downward counterfactual comparisons counterfactual These counterfactuals allowed lucky These people to bounce back from the negative events more quickly events Wiseman’s Luck School Wiseman’s Asked people to follow “lucky” Asked principles in their lives for 1 month principles Results: After a month, 80% of the Results: people were happier and more satisfied with their lives Luck can be a product of the person, Luck not just the situation not Further suggested readings that are entirely optional, but in case you’re interested in one of these topics. Most are available on-line through PsycInfo. (Note: You will not need to know anything not from these readings for any of our exams!) from Dunning, D., Johnson, K., Ehrlinger, J., & Kruger, J. Dunning, (2003). Why people fail to recognize their own incompetence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 83-87. Science, 83-87. Prentice, D.A., & Miller, D.T. (1993). Pluralistic Prentice, ignorance and alcohol use on campus: Some consequences of misperceiving the social norm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 243-256. of 243-256. Taylor, S.E., & Brown, J.D. (1988). Illusion and wellbeing: A social psychological perspective on mental being: health. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 193-210. Psychological 193-210. ...
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