8.Slides - What do these letters spell? FOLK C R O A K SOAK...

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Unformatted text preview: What do these letters spell? FOLK C R O A K SOAK What do we call the white of an egg? What Problematic Consequences of Expectations of 1. Mindless responding Priming – The tendency for recently Priming used or thought about material to influence the interpretation of subsequent information subsequent Problematic Consequences of Expectations of Quickly say the following number ten times… times… TEN Problematic Consequences of Expectations of 2. Self-fulfilling prophecy 2. Self-fulfilling When our expectations about When others (or ourselves) lead to actions that cause the actions expectations to come true expectations Example of a self-fulfilling prophecy Example (Peterson et al., 1998) Does catastrophizing predict untimely death? Longitudinal study (of people born around 1910) N = 1,182 In 1936 & 1940 – assessed catastrophizing Results: Catastrophizers were more likely to Results: have died (through 1981) have And were more likely to die from accidents and And violent deaths violent Problematic Consequences of Expectations of 3. Illusory correlations 3. Illusory Perceptions of covariation (and Perceptions causation) where none exist causation) Example (Redelmeier & Tversky, 1996): Example (Redelmeier Arthritis patients and the weather Why do illusory correlations occur? Problematic Consequences of Expectations of Why do illusory correlations occur? Paired Distinctiveness We perceive two items go together We because they share some unusual feature, or occur close together in space or time or Problematic Consequences of Expectations of Why do illusory correlations occur? Relying on small samples Relying Forming beliefs about a group based Forming on one (or few) cases on Problematic Consequences of Expectations of Why do illusory correlations occur? Availability Heuristic We remember those instances where We two events occurred together two Hot hand phenomenon “If I’m on, I find that confidence just builds... you feel If nobody can stop you. It’s important to hit that first one, especially if it’s a swish. Then you hit another, and...you feel like you can do anything.” and...you ~Lloyd Free (a.k.a. World B. Free, former 76er) The hot hand The 100 basketball fans: 91% thought “a player has better chance of making 91% a shot after having just made his last two or three shots than he does after having just missed his last two or three shots.” two For a player who makes 50% of his shots, fans For thought that his shooting percentage would be... thought 61% after having just made a shot 42% after having just missed a shot 84% thought “it’s important to pass the ball to 84% someone who has just made several shots in a row.” row.” Does the “Hot hand” exist? Calculated probability of making a shot after missing previous 1, 2, or 3 shots, and after making the previous 1, 2, or 3 shots. making Why do we believe in the “hot hand”? Why Streaks happen more often than we think, Streaks and are more “available” and Sports commentators and coaches often Sports encourage this myth encourage Personal experience of being “in the zone” Hot hand website: Hot http://thehothand.blogspot.com http://thehothand.blogspot.com Interpreting Others’ Behavior Interpreting Two general ways of interpreting another Two person’s behavior person’s We can make: Dispositional attributions – behavior reflects Dispositional something about a person’s personality personality Situational attributions – the person’s Situational behavior is due to the situation they’re in the Ronald helped the elderly man. Sven had a hard time solving the puzzle. Eleza gave money to the boy. The Fundamental Attribution Error The (a.k.a. Correspondence Bias) We overestimate the influence of We dispositional factors on others’ behavior dispositional s And underestimate the influence of And situational factors on others’ behavior situational s Lee Ross’s “Quiz Show” study Small groups of participants came to the lab Small together together Three groups of participants: “Questioner” “Answerer” “Observers” Questioner wrote 10 challenging but fair Questioner questions to ask the Answerer questions “Quiz Show” study Quiz (Ross et al., 1977) (Ross The Quiz Show Study Questioner Composed 10 difficult questions to ask Answerer Answerer Answered the questions Watched the interaction Observers Results: Answerers and observers rated the questioner as more knowledgeable than contestant questioner Questioner’s Questioner’s Perceived Knowledge Answerer’s Perceived Knowledge Questioner ratings: Answerer ratings: Observer ratings: 54 67 83 = > > 51 41 49 ...
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