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Unformatted text preview: Why do we commit the fundamental attribution error? fundamental Other people’s dispositions are more Other noticeable (or conspicuous) than the situation they’re involved in situation Fundamental attribution error is not as Fundamental strong for people we know well strong Survey… Survey… Actor-Observer Differences Actor-Observer
We make dispositional attributions about We others, but situational attributions about ourselves ourselves Nisbett et al. (1973) Nisbett Own choices = due to situational Own variables variables Friend’s choices = due to their friend’s Friend’s dispositions dispositions Actor-Observer Differences Actor-Observer Possible reasons: Possible Point of view Knowledge of the self vs. other Attentional Capacity Attentional
Some goals require great attention to detail detail But often we don’t have the attentional capacity to process everything everything Automatic vs. controlled processing Automatic “Automatic” “Controlled” ~ Calculus Reflexes ~ Actions on 1st Perceiving colors Breathing (usually) date ~ What you say when you raise your hand in class Priming Priming Reality is “constructive”: depends not Reality only on what’s out there but also on how we processes it (e.g., priming) we Priming can be accomplished outside of Priming our awareness and lead to automatic behavior behavior Automatic effects on: Social Judgment
(Srull & Wyer, 1979) The classic “Donald” study The Step 1: Scrambled sentences task: words either related to hostility or not either Hostility-related: “he kicked her bit and” Hostility-related: “want fight I hurt him” Neutral words: “tested weather she the vain” Step 2: Read a paragraph about “Donald” and form judgments about him form I ran into my old acquaintance Donald the other day, and I decided to go over and visit him. Soon after I arrived at Donald’s house, a salesman knocked at the door, but Donald refused to let him enter. Donald also told me that he was refusing to pay his rent until the landlord repaints his apartment. We talked for a while, had lunch, and then went out for a ride. We used my car, since Donald’s car had broken down that morning, and he told the garage mechanic that he would have to go somewhere else if he couldn’t fix his car that same day. We went to the park for about an hour and then stopped at a hardware store. I was sort of preoccupied, but Donald bought some gadget, and then I heard him demand his money back from the sales clerk. Automatic effects on: Social Judgment
(Srull & Wyer, 1979) DV: How assertive/hostile is Donald? Results: When primed with hostile words first, participants rate Donald as more hostile Effect happens without awareness Automatic effects on: Social Judgment
(Bargh and Pietromonaco, 1982) Step 1: “Vigilance task” Words flashed on screen for 60 milliseconds, Words followed by mask followed 0%, 20% or 80% of words related to hostility Example of subliminal priming: Vigilance task *** *** HOSTILE HOSTILE XMPRTVWIVC XMPRTVWIVC *** *** RUDE RUDE XMPRTVWIVC XMPRTVWIVC *** *** BITTER BITTER XMPRTVWIVC XMPRTVWIVC *** *** MEAN MEAN VWIVXMPRT VWIVXMPRT *** *** (Bargh and Pietromonaco, 1982) Automatic effects on: Social Judgment Step 1: “Vigilance task” 0%, 20% or 80% of words related to hostility Step 2: Read about Donald and make Read judgments about him judgments Results: The greater the percentage of hostile The words during priming, the more they rated Donald as hostile Donald (Bargh, Chen, Burrows, 1996, Study 2) Automatic effects on: Behavior Sample Scrambled Sentence Task Sample
From are Florida oranges temperatures Sew sentimental buy item the He wise drops only seems Us bingo sing play let Should now withdraw forgetful we Somewhat prepared I was retired Sunlight makes temperature wrinkle raisins Is he gullible plant so Be will swear lonely they Sample Scrambled Sentence Task Sample
From are Florida oranges temperatures From Florida Sew sentimental buy item the Sew sentimental He wise drops only seems He wise Us bingo sing play let Us bingo Should now withdraw forgetful we Should forgetful Somewhat prepared I was retired Somewhat retired Sunlight makes temperature wrinkle raisins Sunlight wrinkle Is he gullible plant so Is gullible Be will swear lonely they Be lonely (Bargh, Chen, Burrows, 1996, Study 2) Automatic effects on: Behavior Scrambled sentences task including either: Elderly stereotype words vs. neutral words Elderly DV: Walking to elevator (9.75 meters away) (Bargh, Chen, Burrows, 1996, Study 2) Automatic effects on: Behavior seconds (Dijksterhuis & Van Knippenberg, 1998) Automatic effects on: Behavior (Dijksterhuis & Van Knippenberg, 1998) Automatic effects on: Behavior Trivia Quiz: 60 questions Example: “Who painted La Guernica?” Who
a) a) b) b) c) d) d) Dali Dali Miro Picasso Picasso Velasquez (Dijksterhuis & Van Knippenberg, 1998) Automatic effects on: Behavior Example: Example: “Who wrote Das Capital?” Who Das ?” a) Joseph Stalin a) Joseph
b) b) c) d) d) Eugene V. Debs Benito Mussolini Benito Karl Marx percent correct Results percen t correc t Results ...
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- Fall '09