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10.Slides - Exam#1 • Monday September 22th • Will cover...

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Unformatted text preview: Exam #1 • Monday, September 22th • Will cover Chapters 1-4 (Chapter 4 will not be covered in class, but you will have to know it) • All multiple choice questions Sample questions Sample 1. Who is LEAST likely to show the selfserving bias? serving a) A person high in self-esteem a) b) A person from a Western, individualistic b) culture culture c) A depressed person d) A person in a happy mood 2. In class, you accidentally overhear a fellow student talk about how smart you are. You are learning something about yourself via: yourself a) b) b) c) d) e) e) self-perception the discounting principle the reflected-appraisal process social comparison modeling 3. In the tryouts for the football team, Bruce finished 31st out of 150 people who tried out. The finished top 30 finishers made the team, so Bruce feels that he just missed the cut. He’s extremely disappointed, even more disappointed than his friend who finished 125th. Most likely, Bruce feels worse than his friend 125 Most because of: a) a) b) b) c) c) d) e) a self-fulfilling prophecy self-perception processes self-perception the hindsight bias a counterfactual comparison paired distinctiveness 4. Self-handicapping and the self-serving bias are distinct in that self-handicapping ___________, whereas the self-serving bias ___________. a) is done in order to self-improve; is done in order to self-enhance b) occurs for undesirable outcomes; occurs for desirable outcomes desirable c) occurs primarily among people with high selfesteem; occurs primarily among people with low esteem; self-esteem. self-esteem. d) occurs prior to a performance; occurs after a d) performance performance 5. Which of the following would be an example of a downward counterfactual comparison? of a) Considering how your life would have been if you had a) gotten a job at McDonald’s instead of coming to the University of Florida University b) Considering how things might have turned out if you had b) inherited millions of dollars while you were younger inherited c) Considering how you used to be lazy and unmotivated in c) school, but you’re the opposite now school, d) Considering how you used to be in much better shape d) compared to today compared e) Considering how unintelligent you are relative to Albert e) Einstein Einstein Answers to the sample questions Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C C D D A Automatic effects on: Goals (Bargh et al., 2001) Priming manipulation: word-search task with word-search words related to: words achievement--e.g., win, achieve, compete, attain neutral--e.g., ranch, shampoo, river, carpet Scrabble task: create as many words as possible create out of 8 tiles out DV: Persistence at task in face of obstacle to DV: goal (i.e., after 2 min. told to stop via intercom) Automatic effects on: Goals (Bargh et al., 2001) DV: Proportion of participants who DV: continued to work after the experimenter continued said, “stop” over the intercom: said, 22% in neutral condition 57% in “achievement” prime condition Automatic effects on: Goals (Holland et al., 2005) Priming manipulation: Exposed to allPriming purpose cleaner scent (or not) • Then, everyone moved to a different room, were left alone, and instructed to eat a biscuit eat • DV = How much they cleaned up the biscuit crumbs biscuit The effect of credit card symbol The (Feinberg, 1986) Lab experiment on “attitudes toward consumer Lab products” products” While observing product, one group was exposed While to a credit card symbol (vs. not) to Results (DV=average money willing to pay) (DV=average Products Tent Lamp Chess set Toaster Stereo system Pocket camera No No credit card credit $69.95 $69.95 $28.36 $28.36 $ 8.67 8.67 $21.50 $21.50 $157.42 $157.42 $29.58 With With credit card credit $77.73 $77.73 $40.41 $40.41 $25.75 $25.75 $67.33 $67.33 $191.17 $191.17 $52.67 $52.67 The effect of credits card emblems The (Feinberg, 1986) Lab experiment on “attitudes toward consumer Lab products” products” While observing product, one group was exposed While to a credit card symbol (vs. not) to Effect also worked for donating to Effect charity charity Field experiment: When a tip tray has a credit Field card symbol on it, diners tipped almost 5% more card Summary of priming experiments Summary Activation of concepts can affect our Activation behavior behavior Through either subliminal or supraliminal Through priming priming These effects occur largely outside of our These awareness awareness Automaticity maximizes efficiency Priming inside vs. outside the lab Automaticity can lead to Mindless Behavior to Automatic behavior in the wrong Automatic situation Airline pilots who normally fly in warm Airline weather forgot to engage de-icers weather Santos, Leve & Pratkanis (1994) Santos, A typical or an atypical request for change Compliance rates for: Typical requests: “Can you spare any change?” – 15% “Can you spare a quarter?” – 31% Strange requests: “Can you spare 37 cents?” – 31% Can “Can you spare 17 cents?” – 43% Perceiving change in the social world social (Eibach, Libby, & Gilovich, 2003) QuickTime ™ and a Graphics decompressor are needed to see this picture. But we’re not like Rip...Judging change usually presents an attributional ambiguity usually Prediction: When people change and this Prediction: causes them to construe the world differently, they will overestimate change in the world the Because: We may not be aware of change in the self We don’t understand how changes in the We self affect our construal of the world self Study: Wealth and perception of freedom 2000 General Social Survey: Americans were asked how freedom in Americans America has changed Respondents were also reported how their Respondents financial situation had changed financial Would change in the self be misconstrued as Would a change in the world? change Changes in freedom in America Changes Financial Financial change change Less Less freedom freedom No change 37 37 More More freedom freedom 39 39 38 38 Financial Financial decline decline No change Financial Financial gain gain 23 23 19 19 17 17 43 43 36 36 46 46 Parenthood and perception of social danger Parenthood “Children are prey to major and minor disturbances Children that make watching over them mandatory. Someone must be alert for the things that go wrong…Soon the stairs have to be barricaded. The lethal tools of household work, from needles to cleansers to glue, will be locked away. Mild medicines can turn poisonous if a child mistakes them for candy… [W]hen a child is outside her [parent’s] domain…it sometimes seems that there is no limit to the risks the world offers.” ~Sara Ruddick, Maternal Thinking Parenthood and perception of social danger In the 2000 National Election Study: How have crime rates changed since 1992? Respondents also reported the ages of their children (if any) How would new parents estimate changes in crime rates? Actual crime statistics Actual Parenthood and perception of social danger Parenthood and perception of social danger Judgment of crime trends in 1990s Judgment Respondent type Increase Increase No change Decrease “Children” group Control group 38 38 29 29 29 32 32 39 39 “What is happening to our young people? They What disrespect their elders, they disobey their parents. They ignore the law. They riot in the streets inflamed with wild notions. Their morals are decaying. What is to become of them?” are Who said this? a) Ben Franklin b) Plato c) Bill Cosby d) Winston Churchill e) Richard Nixon Perceptions of social decline Perceptions “Virtually every culture past or present has believed that men and women are not up to the standards of their parents and forebears.” ~Arthur Herman, The Idea of Decline in Western History Possible reasons for the universality of perceived social decline of Greater sensitivity to social danger Decline in physical and mental vigor with Decline aging aging The acquisition of “cynical knowledge” ...
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