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Homework5Solutions - Business Dynamics Instructors Manual...

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Business Dynamics Instructor’s Manual Chapter 6 75 The diagram shows the main flows among these stocks. Note that the diagram assumes retirement is permanent, though one could easily add a flow of retirees rejoining the labor force. The flows also imply that people do not move from maturation directly into unemployment or employment, but must first enter the non-participating population, then enter the labor force by starting a job search before taking a job (thus entering the unemployed stock, however briefly). You can easily modify these flows to represent different assumptions. The stocks are all measured in people and the flows are all in people per time period (e.g. week, month, or year). 6.2 Adding Stock and Flow Structure to Causal Diagrams (Section 6.3.1) 1. The workload management example (section 5.4): Key stocks in the workload management case include the backlog of assignments to be done, the student’s GPA, the student’s energy level (Exhibit 6-3), and the current due date for assignments. Due Date Energy Level Grades Effort Devoted to Assignments Work Pressure Time Remaining Calendar Time Workweek Productivity Quality of Work B2 Corner Cutting Loop B1 Midnight Oil R1 Burnout Loop R2 Too Tired to Think Loop B3 Quality Control Loop - + - - + + + + + + + - - Requests for extensions + B4 My Dog Ate My Homework Assignment Backlog Work Completion Rate Assignment Rate Change in Due Date + Net Change in Energy - Grades on New Work + Exhibit 6-3 Stock and flow structure of the student workload model
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Business Dynamics Instructor’s Manual Chapter 6 76 Note that the diagram does not show the full set of information inputs to each of the rates. For example, the net change in energy level must be affected by the energy level itself: The work completion rate must fall to zero when the assignment backlog is zero, no matter how high the workweek; similarly, energy cannot fall below zero no matter how high the workweek, nor can it rise above the level corresponding to a fully rested, maximally alert state. Likewise grades on new work is the product of the grade received on each new assignment handed in (a function of the quality of work) and the number of new assignments handed in (the work completion rate). This latter link is not shown. While these feedbacks must be included in a formal simulation model, they would primarily be clutter in this diagram. One can make a case that making these stock and flow structures explicit does not add much insight to the causal diagram. Of the four stocks, the most important to show explicitly is probably the assignment backlog, and, arguably, the energy level. For the assignment backlog to
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