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Bigbook_07 - TEST 7 SECTION 1 Time — 30 minutes 38...

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Unformatted text preview: TEST 7 SECTION 1 Time — 30 minutes 38 Questions Directions: Each sentence below has one or two 5. blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Beneath the sentence are five lettered words or sets of words. Choose the word or set of words for each blank that E fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole. 1. Her should not be confused with miserli- ness; as long as I have known her, she has always been willing to assist those who are in need. (B) intolerance (D) diffidence (A) intemperance (C) apprehension (E) frugality Natural selection tends to eliminate genes that cause inherited diseases, acting most strongly against the most severe diseases; consequently, hereditary diseases that are would be expected to be very , but. surprisingly, they are not. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) lethal..rare untreated..dangerous unusual..refractory new. .perplexing widespread..acute Unfortunately, his damaging attacks on the ramifications of the economic policy have been by his wholehearted acceptance of that policy's underlying assumptions, (B) undermined (E) redeemed (A) supplemented (C) wasted (D) diverted During the opera‘s most famous aria the tempo chosen by the orchestra's conductor seemed , without necessary relation to what had gone before. (A) tedious (D) compelling (B) melodious (E) cautious (C) capricious 267 In the machinelike world of classical physics, the human intellect appears --——, since the mechanical nature of classical physics does not creative reasoning, the very ability that had made the formulation of classical principles possible. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) anomalous..allow for abstract..speak to anachronistic..deny enduring..value contradictory‘..exclude During the 1960’s assessments of the family shifted remarkably, from general endorsement of it as a worthwhile. stable institution to wide- spread . it as an oppressive and bankrupt one whose was both imminent and welcome. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) flight from..restitution fascination with..corruption rejection of..vogue' censure of..dissolution relinquishment of,.ascent Documenting science's philosoPhy would be , since it is almost axiomatic that many philosophers use scientific concepts as the foundations for their speculations. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) distrust of..elementary ‘ influenc: on..superfluous reliance on..inappropriate dependence on. .difficuit differences from..impossible GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. Directions: In each of the following questions, a related pair of words or phrases is followed by five lettered pairs of words or phrases. Select the lettered pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair. 8. SCALPEL:SURGEON :: (A) laserzagronomist (B) magnetzecologist' (C) syringezgeologist (D) telescopezastronomer (E) microscope2geometrician 9. APPLEzFRUlT :2 (A) egg:chicken (B) rungzchair (C) woolzfabric (D) fusezdynamite (E) wickzcandle 10. ENVELOPEzLETl'ER :: (A) scarfzhat (B) boxzbag '(C) cratezproduce (D) neck:head (E) bloodzheart ll. PANEGYRlCzEULOGIZE :: (A) ballad:stigmatize (B) odezcriticize (C) lampoonzsatirize (D) tirade:entertain (E) treatisezdispute 12. OVERDOSEzPRESCRIPTION :: (A) deprivationzmaterialism (B) indiscretionzconvention (C) affliction:sympathy (D) adventure:expedition (E) drugzmedicine 13. FRESCO:WALL :: (A) fountainmounyard (B) parquetry:floor‘ (C) thatchzroof (D) statuary:passage (E) gargoylezgutter 14. HAMMER:ANVIL:: (A) knockerzdoor (B) stick:gong (C) hand:drum (D) pestlezmortar (E) gavelzlectem 15. RELEVANT:CRUCIAL:: (A) marginalzunique (B) perceptiblezobvious (C) apparent:rea1 (D) peripheralscentral (E) possible2desirable 16. PERFUNCTORILY:INSPIRATION :: (A) insolentlyzveneration (B) ardently:passion (C) phlegmatically:composure (D) surreptitiously:obsession (E) haltinglyrreluctance GO ONTO THE NEXT PAGE. Directions: Each passage in this group is followed by questions based on its content. After reading a passage. choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions followmg a passage on the basts of what 15 stated or implied in that passage. Great comic art is never otherwordly, it does not seek to mystify us, and it does not deny ambiguity by branding as evil whatever differs from good. Great comic artists assume that truth may bear all lights, and thus they seek to accentuate contradictions in social action, not gloss over or transcend them by appeals to extrasocial symbols of divine ends, cosmic purpose, or laws of nature. The moment of transcen- dence in great comic art is a social moment, born out of the conviction that we are human, even though we try to be gods. The comic community to which artists address themselves is a community of reasoning, loving, joyful, compassionate beings, who are willing to assume the human risks of acting rationally. With- out invoking gods or demons, great comic art arouses courage in reason. courage which grows out of trust in what human beings can do as humans. 17. The passage suggests that great comic art can be characterized as optimistic about the ability of humans to ' (A) rid themselves of pride (B) transcend the human conditiOn (C) differentiate clearly between good and evil (D) avoid social conflicts (E) act rationally 18. It can be inferred from the passage that the’ author admires great comic artists primarily for their (A) ability to understand the frequently subtle differences between good and evil (B) ability to reconcile the contradictions in human behavior (C) ability to distinguish between rational and irrational behavior (D) insistence on confronting the truth about the human condition (E) insistence on condemning human faults and weaknesses 269 l9. Which of the following is the most accurate description of the organization of the passage? (A) A sequence ofobservations leading to a prediction (B) A list of inferences drawn from facts stated at the beginning of the passage (C) A series of assertions related to one general subject (D) A statement of the major idea, followed by specific examples (E) A succession of ideas moving from specific to general ' GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. It has long been known that the rate of oxidative metabolism (the process that uses oxygen to convert food into energy) in any animal has a profound effect on its living patterns. The high metabolic rate of small animals, for example, gives‘them sustained power and activity per unit of weight, but at the cost of requiring constant consumption of food and water. Very large animals, with their relatively low metabolic rates, can survive well on a sporadic food supply, but can gen— erate little metabolic energy per gram ofbody weight. If only oxidative metabolic rate is considered, there- fore, one might assume that smaller, more active, animals could prey on larger ones, at least if they attacked in groups. Perhaps they could ifit were not for anaerobic glycolysis, the great equalizer. I . Anaerobic glycolysis is a process in which energy is produced, without oxygen, through the breakdown of muscle glycogen into lactic acid and adenosine tri- phosphate (ATP), the energy provider. The amount of energy that can be produced anaerobically is a function of the amount of glycogen present—in all vertebrates about 0.5 percent of their muscles‘ wet weight. Thus the anaerobic energy reserves ofa verte- brate are proportional to the size ofthe animal. If, for example, some predators had attacked a lOO—ton dinosaur, normally torpid, the dinosaur would have been able to generate almost instantaneously, via anaerobic glycolysis, the energy of 3,000 humans at maximum oxidative metabolic energy production. This explains how many large species have managed to compete with their more active neighbors: the compensation for a low oxidative metabolic rate is glycolysis. There are limitations, however, to this compensa- tion. The glycogen reserves of any animal are good, at most, for only about two minutes at maximum effort, after which only the normal oxidative metabolic source of energy remains. With the conclusion ofa burst of activity, the lactic acid level is high in the . body fluids. leaving the large animal vulnerable to attack until the acid is'reconverted, via oxidative metabolism, by the liver into glucose, which is then sent (in part) back to the muscles for glycogen resyn- thesis. During this process the enormous energy debt that the animal has run up through anaerobic gly- colysis must be repaid, a debt that is proportionally much greater for the larger vertebrates than for the smaller ones. Whereas the tiny shrew can replace in minutes the glycogen used for maximum effort, for example, the gigantic dinosaur would have required more than three weeks. It might seem that this inter— minably long recovery time in a large vertebrate would prove a grave disadvantage for survival. Fortunately, muscle glycogen is used only when needed and even then only in whatever quantity is necessary. Only in times of panic or during mortal combat would the entire reserves be consumed. 20. 21. 22. x The primary purpose of the passage is to, (A) refute a misconception about anaerobic glycolysis (B) introduce a new hypothesis about anaerobic glycolysis (C) describe the limitations of anaerobic glycolysis ’ (D) analyze the chemistry of anaerobic gly~ colysis and its similarity to oxidative metabolism (E) explain anaerobic glycolysis and its effects on animal survival According to the author, glycogen is crucial to the process ofanaerobic glycolysis because glycogen (A) increases the organism's need for ATP (B) reduces the amount of ATP in the tissues (C) is an inhibitor of the oxidative metabolic production of ATP (D) ensures that the synthesis of ATP will ‘ occur speedily is the material from which ATP is derived (E) According to the author, a major limitation of anaerobic glycolysis is that it can (A) produce in large animals more lactic acid than the liver can safely reconvert necessitate a dangerously long recovery period in large animals produce energy more slowly than it can be used by large animals consume all of the available glycogen regardless of need reduce significantly the rate at which energy is produced by oxidative metabolism (B) (C) (D) (E) GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 23. 24. 25. The passage suggests that the total anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the vertebrate‘s size because (A) larger vertebrates conserve more energy than smaller vertebrates larger vertebrates use less oxygen per unit weight than smaller vertebrates (C) the ability of a vertebrate to consume food is a function of its size (D) the amount of muscle tissue in a vertebrate is directly related to its size (E) the size of a vertebrate is proportional to the quantity of energy it can utilize (B) The author suggests that, on the basis of energy production. a lOO-ton dinosaur would have been markedly vulnerable to which of the following? 1. Repeated attacks by a single smaller,- more active adversary II. Sustained attack by numerous smaller, more active adversaries III. An attack by an individual adversary of similar size (A) 11 only (B) I and 11 only (C) I and III only (D) II and III only (E) I, II, and In It can be inferred from the passage that the time required to replenish muscle glycogen following anaerobic glycolysis is determined by which of the following factors? 1. Rate of oxidative metabolism II. Quantity of lactic acid in the body fluids III. Percentage of glucose that is returned to the muscles (A) I only (B) III only (C) I and II only (D) I and III only (E) I. II, and III 271 26. 27. The author is most probably addressing which of the following audiences? (A) College students in an introductory course on animal physiology ' (B) Historians of science investigating the discovery of anaerobic glycolysis ' (C) Graduate students with specialized training in comparative anatomy (D) Zoologists:i_nterested in prehistoric animals (E) Biochemists doing research on oxidative metabolism Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage? (A) The disadvantage of a low oxidative metabolic rate in large animals can be offset by their ability to convert substan- tial amounts of glycogen into energy. (B) The most significant problem facing animals that have used anaerobic glycolysis for energy is the resynthesis of- its by-product, glucose, into glycogen. ' (C) The benefits to animals of anaerobic glycolysis are offset by the profound costs that must be paid. ' (D) The major factor ensuring that a large animal will triumph over a smaller animal is the large animal‘s ability to produce energy via anaerobic glycolysis. (E) The great differences that exist in metabolic rates between species of small animals and species of large animals can have important effects on the patterns of their activities. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. Directions: Each question below consists of a word printed in capital letters, followed by five lettered words or phrases. Choose the lettered word or phrase that is most nearly opposite in meaning to the ward in capital letters. Since some of the questions require you to distinguish fine shades of meaning, be sure to consider all the choices before deciding which one is best. 28. FLUSTERED; (A) mute (B) calm (C) heavy (D) ingrained '(E) courageous 29. ENDORSE: (A) provoke criticism (B) receive payment (C) submit unwillingly (D) oppose publicly‘ (E) perform quickly 30. EXPIRE: (A) evolve (a) stabilize (C) (come to life (D) grow to fruition (E) bring to light 31. METAMORPHOSIS: (A) relief from strain (B) continuation without change (C) cyclical motion (D) dogmatic persistence » (E) varied activity 272 32. MOROSE: (A) overawed (C) 'cherubic (D) decisive (B) agitated (E) cheerful 33.‘ lNDELlBlLlTY: (A) availability (B) comprehensibility (C) decidability (D) erasability (E) retractability 34. SPIRITUAL: (A) eclectic (C) ephemeral (B) figurative (D) immoral (E) corporeal 35. DISPATCH: (A) serenity (C) heedlessness (E) aversion (B) leisurelincss (D) irregularity 36. FERMENT: (A) solidity (B) purity (C) lucidity (D) transparency (E) tranquillity 37. FACETIOUS: (A) lugubrious (B) contentious (C) ingenuous (D) prodigious (E) audacious 38. CRAVEN: (A) indifferent (B) presumptuous (C)_ valorous (D) scrupulous (E) petulant SECTION 2 Time— 30 minutes 38 Questions Directions: Each sentence below has one or two 5. The state is a network of exchanged benefits and blanks. each blank indicating that something has been beliefs, between rulers and citizens based omitted. Beneath the sentence are five lettered words on those laws and procedures that are to or sets of words. Choose the word or set of words for the maintenance of community, each blank that b_es_t fits the meaning ofthe sentence (A) a compromiseuinimiml as 3 Wm” (B) an interdependence..subsidiary (C) acounterpoint..incidental l. The spellings of many Old English words have (D) an equivalence..prerequisite been —-—--— in the living language. although their (E) a reciprocity..conducive pronunciations have changed. (A) preserved (B) shortened 6. Far from viewing Jefferson as a skeptical but (C) preempted (D) revised (E) improved enlightened intellectual, historians of the 1960's portrayed him as thinker, eager to fill the young with his political orthodoxy while censor- . ' ‘ ft ' l l t t . . , . . 2 The sheer diverSity o ropica p an s represen 5 mg ldcas he dld not 11k:- a seemingly source of raw materials, of which only a few have been utilized. (A) an adventurous (B) a doctrinaire (A) exploited (B) quantifiable (C) 3“ “belie (D) alUdiCiOUS (C) controversial (D) inexhaustible (E) acynlml (E) remarkable 7. To have true disciples, a thinker must not be too : any effective intellectual leader depends on the ability of other people to thought processes that did not originate with them. 3. For centuries animals have been used as for people in experiments to assess the effects of therapeutic and other agents that might later be used in humans. (A) popular..dismiss ‘ . (B) methodical..interpret (A) benefactors (B) companions (C) idiosyncratiCHreenact ((Céfxgglzsles (D) precedents (D) self—confident..revitalize g .(E) pragmatic.ldiscourage 4. Social tensions among adult factions can be ~----— by politics, but adolescents and children have no such for resolving their conflict with the exclusive world of adults. (A) intensified..attitude- GO ON To THE NEXT PAGE' (B) complicated. .relief (C) frustrated. .justification (D) adjusted..mechanism (E) revealed. .opponunity 273 Directions: In each 'of the following questions, a related pair of words or phrases is followed by five lettered pairs of words or phrases. Select the lettered pair that best expresses a relationship similargto that expressed in the original pair. 3. ADULT:CH1LD':: (A) horsezmare (B) catzkitten (C) swine':sow' ~ (D) humanzanimal (E) cow:herd 9. CLOTlel'SSOLVED :: (A) enthu'siastzinfluenced (B) cartoon2distorted (C) crowdzdispersed (D) chain:disengaged (E) 'disciplezinspired 10. GLOSSARYzTEXT :: (A) bibliography:source (B) abstractzdissertation -- (C) ?-legend:map ‘ (D) indexzcatalog (E) abbreviationzfootnote ~11. FERVOR:ZEALOT :: . (A) antipathyrphilanthropist (B) improvidencezspendthrjft (C) concisionzpolitician (D) determinationzecologist (E) nonchalancezacrobat l2. SHARD:POTTERY :: (A) flintzstone (B) flangezwheel (C) cinder:coal (D) fragment:bone (E) tarezgrain 13.‘ 14. 15. 16. FERTILIZEzGROW‘: (A) immunizezresist (B) nourishzenrich (C) heatzburn V (D) graftzmultiply -(E) prunezdwarf ' ATTENTIVE:OFFICIOUS :: (A) doubtfulzambiguous (B) absorbedzengrossed (C) refinedzsnobbish (D) magisterial:authoritative (E) lmpromptu:spontaneous EXORBITANT: MODERATION :: (A) dispassionatezequanimity (B) -macabre:interest (C) perfidious:loyalty (D) brilliantzgullibility (E) lavishzextravagance BLANDISHMENTzCOAX :: )(A) medalzhonor (B) budget:save (C) diaryzreminisce (D) concertzplay (E) pleazthreaten GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. Directions: Each passage in this group is followed by questions based on its content. After reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage. The dark regions in the starry night sky are not pockets in the universe that are devoid of stars as had long been thought. Rather, they are dark because of interstellar dust that hides the stars behind it. Although its visual effect is so pronounced, dust is only a minor constituent of the material, extremely low in density, that lies between the stars. Dust accounts for about one percent of the total mass of interstellar matter. The rest is hydrogen and helium gas, with small amounts of other elements. The interstellar material, rather like terrestrial clouds, comes in all shapes and sizes. The average density of interstellar material in the vicinity of our Sun is 1,000 to 10,000 times less than the best terrestrial laboratory vacuum. It is only because of the enormous inter- stellar distances that so little material per unit of volume becomes so significant. Optical astronomy is most directly affected, for although interstellar gas is perfectly transparent, the dust is not. 17. According to the passage, which of the following is a direct perceptual consequence of interstellar dust? (A) Some stars are rendered invisible to observers on Earth. (B) Many visible stars are made to seem brighter than they really are. (C) The presence of hydrogen and helium gas is revealed. (D) The night sky appears dusty at all times to observers on Earth. (E) The dust is conspicuously visible against a background of bright stars. 275 * 18. It can be inferred from the passage that the density of interstellar material is (A) higher where distances between the stars are shorter equal to that of interstellar dust unusually low in the vicinity of our Sun independent of the incidence of gaseous components not homogeneous throughout interstellar space (3) (C) (D) (E) 19. It can be inferred from the passage that it is because space is so vast that (A) .litt...
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