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Bigbook_13 - TEST 13 SECTION I Time—30 minutes ‘ ‘ 38...

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Unformatted text preview: TEST 13 SECTION I Time—30 minutes ‘ ‘ 38 Questions Directions: Each sentence that fol10ws has one or two blanks. each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Following the sentence are five lettered words or sets ofwords. Choose the word or set of words for each blank that b_eS_t fits the meaning ofthe sentence as a whole. 1. The availability of oxygen is an essential ---- -- for animal life, while carbon dioxide is equally --‘-- for plant life. ‘ (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) choice. .optional duplication. selective conversion. .exchangeable condition. .neCessary luxury. .harmful 2. Prudery actually draws attention to the vice it is ) supposed to ; the very act that forbids speech or prohibits sight - what is hidden. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) condemn. .distorts monitor. .signals repress. .dramatizes obviate. .fosters divulge. .conceals 3. After thirty years of television, people have become “speed watchers"; consequently, if the camera lingers. the interest of the audience . (A) broadens (B) begins (C) varies (D) flags (E) clears Compared mathematically to making and driving, almost everything else seems reiatively risk-free, ---- almost nothing seems worth regulating. (A) yet (B) since (C) so (D) even though (E) aslongas 5. Ironically, Carver’s precision in sketching lives on 499 the edge of despair ensures that his stories will some times be read too narrowly, much as Dickens’ social-reformer role once caused his' broader concerns to be ——. (A) ignored (B) reinforced (D) diminished (C) contradicted (E) diversified The demise of the rigorous academic curriculum in . high school resulted, in part, from the progressive rhetoric that the study of subjects previously thought -—-- as part of school learning. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) advocated. necessary enhanced. indispensable restricted. .impractical undermined. .popular sanctioned. .inappropriate . While some see in practical jokes a wish for mastery in miniature over a world that seems very -—-, others believe that the jokes’ purpose is to disrupt. by reducing all transactions to (A) dubious. .confusion -. (B) disorderly. .symmetry (C) harmonious. .dissonanoe (D) unruly. .chaos (E) turbulent. uniformity GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. Directions: In each of the folloiving questions, a related pair of words or phrases is followed by_five lettered pairs A of words or phrases. Select the lettered pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair. 8. ATHLETEzTROPHY :: (A) detectiv’etbadgek 10. ll. 12. n: (B) presenterzaward ((C) soldierrmedal (D) bettor:stake (E) musiciauzinstrument . ARTICULATE L UNCLEAR :: (A) assign2unencumbered (B) elaboratezsketchy (C) explainzlucid (D) grievezsomber (E) march:planned INVENTORY : STOCK :: (A) calculation gledger (B) poll : balloting (C) surveyzten'itory (D) censusrpopulation' (E) petition : names LOGIC : REASONING :: (A) sensitivityzmorality (B) arrogancezleadership (C) ethics: behavior (Dr’creativity : enthusiasm (E) bravery-:charisma MIMICRY 2 CAMOUFLAGE :: (A) photosynthesis : pollination (B) territorialityzmigration (C) hibemation2generation (D) mutation: variation (E) digestion: rumination 500 13. APPREHENSION : TERROR :: (A) interest:conspiracy ' (B) affection.:adoration (C) indifferenoezanimosity (D) reluctance: termination l (E) anxietyzfaith l4. LUMBER1GRACE :: (A) dissemble:pretense (B) relent:energy (C) castigate: justice (D) waverzrcsolution (E) insinuatezsubtlety CAUSTIC : EAT AWAY 2: (A) hormone2inhibit (B) reagentzbind (C) explosive:destroy (D) syntheticzsubstitute * (E) desiccant:dry 15. 16. MALINGERER:DUTY:: (A) scholarzpedantry (B) recluse2hmnamty (C) rebel : responsibility (D) miser:wéalth (E) patron : criticism GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. i \ Directions: Each passage in this group is followed by questions based on its content. After reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage. Classical physics defines the vacuum as a state of absence: a vacuum is said to exist in a region of space if there is nothing in it. In the quantum field theories that describe the physics of elementary particles, the vacuum becomes somewhat more complicated. Even in empty space, particles can appear spontaneously as a result of fluctuations of the vacuum. For example, an electron and a positron, or antielectron. can be created out of the void. Particles created in this way have only a fleeting existence; they are annihilated almost as soon as they appear, and their presence can never be detected directly. They are called virtual particles in order to distinguish them from real particles. whose lifetimes are not con- strained in the same way, and which can be detected. Thus it is still possible to define the vacuum as a space that has no real particles in it. One might expect that the vacuum would always be the state of lowest possible energy for a given region of space. If an area is initially empty and a real particle is put into it, the total energy. it seems, should be raised by at least the energy equivalent of the mass of the added particle. A surprising result of some recent theoretical investigations is that this assumption is not invariably true. There are conditions under which the introduction ofa real particle of finite mass into an empty region of space can reduce the total energy. If the reduction in energy is great enough. an electron and a positron will be spontaneously created. Under these conditions the electron and positron are not a result of vacuum fluctua- tions but are real particles, which exist indefinitely and can be detected. In other words, under these conditions the vacuum is an unstable state and can demy into a state of 10wer energy; i.e., one in which real particles are created. The essential condition for the decay of the vacuum is the presenCe of an intense electric field. As a result of the decay of the vacuum, the space permeated by such a field can be said to acquire an electric charge, and it can be called a charged Vacuum. The particles that materi- alize in the space make the charge manifest. An electric field of sufficient intensity to create a charged vacuum is likely to be found in only one place: in the immediate vicinity of a superheavy atomic nucleus, one with about twice as many protons as the heaviest natural nuclei known. A nucleus that large cannot be stable, but it might be possible to assemble one next to a vacuum for long enough to observe the decay of the vacuum. Experi— ments attempting to achieve this are now under way. 501 l7. l8. l9. Which of the following titles best describes the passage as a whole? (A) TheVacuum: Its Fluctuations and Decay , (B) The Vacuum: Its Creation and Instability (C) The Vacuum: A State of Absence (D) Particles That Materialize in the Vacuum (E) Classical Physics and the Vacuum According to the passage, the assumption that the introduction of a real particle into a vacuum raises the total energy of that region of space has been cast into doubt by which of the following? (A) Findings from’laboratory experiments (B) Findings from observational field experimean (C) Accidental observations made during other experiments (D) Discovery of several erroneous propositions in accepted theories ~ (E) Predictions based on theoretical work It can be inferred from the passage that scientists are currently making efforts to observe which of the following events? (A) The decay ofa vacuum in the presence of virtual particles - ' - - (B) The decay of a vacuum next to-a superheavy atomic'nucleus ' ; (C) The creation of a superheavy atomic nucleus next to an intense electric field ' (D) The creation of a virtual electron and a virtual positron as a result of fluctuations of a vacuum . (E) The creation of a charged vacuum in which only real electrons can be created in the vacuum’s region of space GO ON To THE NEXT PAGE. 20. ll. Physicists’ recent investigations of the decay of the vacuum, as described in the passage; most closely resemble which of the following hypothetical events in other disciplines? (A) On the basis of data gathered in a carefully controlled laboratory experiment, a chemist ' predicts and then demonstrates the physical properties of a newly synthesized polymer. (B) On the basis of manipulations of macroeco- nomic theory, an economist predicts that, contrary to accepted economic theory, infla- tion and unemployment will both decline . under conditions of rapid economic growth. (C) On the basis of a rereading of the texts of Jane ‘ Austen‘s novels, a literary critic suggests that, contrary to accepted literary interpretations. Austen’s plots were actually metaphors for political events in early nineteenth-century England. ' ' ’ ‘ (D) On the basis of data gathered in carefully planned observations of several species of birds, a biologist proposes a modification in the accepted theory of interspecies competi- tion. (E) On the basis of a study of observations inciden- tally recorded in ethnographers.‘ descriptions of non—Westem societies, an anthropologist proposes a new theory of kinship relations. According to the passage, the author considers the reduction of energy in an empty region of space to which a real particle has been added to be (A) a well-known process (B) a frequent occurrence (C) a fleeting aben‘ation (D) an unimportant event (E) an unexpected outcome 502 _ 22. According to the passage, virtual particles differ 23. from real particles in which of the following ways? I. Virtual particles have extremely short lifetimes. 11. Virtual particles are created in an intense elec- tric field. V III. Virtual particles cannot be detected directly”; (A) lonly (B) H only (C) 111 only (D) I and II only (E) I and I'll only The author’s assertions concerning the conditions that lead to the dctny of the vacuum would be most weakened if which of the following occurred? (A) Scientists created an electric field next to a . ‘ vacuum, but found that the electric field was not intense enough to create a charged vacuum. (B) Scientists assembled a superheavy atomic nucleus next to a vacuum, but found that no virtual particles were created in the vacuum’s region of space. ’ ’ 4 (C) Scientists assembled a superheavy atomic ‘nucleus next to a vacuum. but found that they could not then detect any real particles in the vacuum's region of space. (D) Scientists introduced a virtual electron and a _ virtual positron into a vacuum’s region of space. but found that the vacuum did not then fluctuate. ‘ . (E) Scientists introduced a real electron and a real positron into a vacuum’s region of space, but found that the total energy of the space increased by the energy equivalent of the mass of the particles. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. L Simone de Beauvoir’s work greatly influenced Betty Friedan’s-indeed, made it possible. Why, then, was it Friedan who became the prophet of women’s emancipa- tion in the United States? Political conditions, as well as a certain anti-intellectual bias, prepared Americans and the American media to better receive Friedan’s deradi- calized and highly pragmatic The Feminine Mystique, published in 1963, than Beauvoir’s theoretical reading of women‘s situation in The Second Sex. In 1953 when The Second Sex first appeared in translation in the United States, the country had entered the silent, fearful fortress of the anticommunist McCarthy years (1950-1954), and Beauvoir was suspected of Marxist sympathies. Even The Nation, a generally liberal magazine, warned its readers against “certain political leanings" of the author. Open acknowledgement of the existence of women’s oppression was too radical for the United States in the fifties, and Beauvoir’s conclusion, that change in women’s economic condition, though insufficient by itself, “remains the basic factor” in improving women’s situation, was particularly unacceptable. 24. According to the passage, one difference between The Feminine Mystique and The Second Sex is that Friedan's book (A) rejects the idea that women are oppressed (B) provides a primarily theoretical analysis of ‘ women’s lives (C) does not reflect the political beliefs of its author (D) suggests that women‘s economic condition has no impact on their status (E) concentrates on the practical aspects of the question of women’s emancipation 25. The author quotes from The Nation most probably in order to (A) modify an earlier assertion (B) point out a possible exception to her argument (C) illustrate her central point (D) clarify the meaning of a term (E) cite an expert opinion 503 26. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is not a factor in the explanation of why The Feminine Mystique was received more positively in the United States than was The Second sex? (A) By 1963 political conditions in the United States had changed. (B) Friedan’s book was less intellectual and ' abstract than Beauvoir’s. (C) Readers did not recognize the powerful influ- ence of Beauvoir's book on Friedan’s ideas. (D) Friedan’s approach to the issue of women‘s emancipation was less radical than Beau- voir’s. (E) American readers were more willing to consider the problem of the oppression of women in the sixties than they had been in the fifties. 27. According to the passage, Beauvoir's book asserted that the status of women (A) is the outcome of political oppression (B) is inherently tied to their economic condition (C) can be best improved under a communist government . (D) is a theoretical, rather than a pragmatic, issue (E) is a critical area of discussion in Marxist economic theory , GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. ‘ Each question below consists of a word I cpitnl letters, followed by five lettered words (loose the lettered word or phrase that is —iy in meaning to the word in capital . of the questions require you to distinguish “a of meaning, be sure to consider all the ' More deciding which one is best. - .. STERLUZE: (A) uncover (B) imitate t a contaminate (D) operate (E) agitate I INADVER‘IENT: _(A) well known '- (I) quitesimilar (C) fortunate (D) normal (E) intentional I. SUBLIMINAL: (A) adroit (B) gentle C) dovmmst (E) at a perceptible level II. HACATE: (A) avert C) procure (D) subside (E) revolt n INUN'DATE: (A) drain (B) erupt (D) decelerate (E) disturb n ROURISH: (A) lack of consistency (B) lack of embellishment (C) lack of sense (D) lack of spontaneity (E) lack of substance (D) able to be manipulated (B) antagonize (C) exit 504 35. 36. 37. 38. . SUMMARILY; (A) afier long deliberation (B) with benevolent intent (C) in general disagreement (D) under close scrutiny - (E) from questionable premises STOLID: (A) excitable (B) friendly (C) slender (D) brittle (E) weak IDY'LL: (A) negative appraisal (B) pedestrian argument (C) object created for a purpose (D) experience fraught with tension (E)- action motivated by grad ASPERITY: . (A) failure of imagination (B) brevity of speech (C) sureness of judgment '(D) mildness of temper (E) lack of beauty DESULTORY: (A) highly (B) cheerfully accepted (C) 53011le highlighted (D) lightly considered (E) strictly methodical . 11+: SECTION 4 . Time—30 minutes 3 8 Questions Directions: Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Beneath the sentence are five lettered words or sets of words. Choose the word or set of words for each blank that bit fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole. 1. Aspartame, a new artificial sugar substitute, is only ——- replacement for saccharin because, unlike saccharin, it breaks down and loses its' sweetening characteristics at high temperatures, making it --— for baking. - (A) an interim. .ideal (B) an apparent. .excellent (C) a potential. .versatile (D) a significant. .problematic (E) a partial. .unsuitable 2. Trapped thousands of years ago in Antarctic ice, recently discovered air bubbles are ---——- time capsules filled with information for scientists who chan'the history of the atmosphere. (B) broken (E) impenetrable (A) inconsequential (D) resplendent (C) veritable 3. In the days before the mass marketing of books, censorship was source of —-—. which helped the sale of the book and inspired Ralph Waldo Emerson to remark: “Every burned book enlightens the world." ' (A) a respected. .opinion (B) a constant. .guidance (C) a prime. .publicity (D) an unnoticed. .opposition (E) an unpromising. .criticism 516 4. .It was not only the , of geologists that . earlier development of the revolutionaryidea that _ the Earth’s continents 'were moving plates; classical physicists, who could not then explain the mecha-f nism, had declared continental mavement irnpos— sible. ' ‘ (A) indecisiveness. .challenged I (B) ‘radicalism.'.deterred (C) conservatism. .hindeted (D) assumptions. .hastened (E) resistance. .mandated . Although often extremely critical of the medical profession as a whole, people are tarer willing to treat their personal doctors with equal ——-«-. (B) sarcasm (C) mockery (E) condescension (A) impetuosity (D) contempt . Aalto. like other modernists, believed that form follows function; consequently,,his furniture designs assened the of human needs, and the furni- ture's form was human use. (A) universality. .refined by (B) importance. .relegated to (C) rationale. .cmphasized by (D) primacy. .determined by (E) variability. .refiected in . A ——— acceptance of contemporary forms of social behavior has misled a few into believing that values in conflict with the present age are for all practical purposes ---—--. ‘ (A) casual. .reliable (B) superficial..trenchant (C) complaCent. superseded (D) cautious.i.redemptive (E) plaintive. .redundant GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. Directions: In each of the following questions. a related pair of words or phrases is followed by five lettered pairs of words or phrases. Select the lettered pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair. 8. TEACHER : CERTIFICATION :: (A) driverzlicense (B) officer:handcuffs (C)"librarian:book (D) mechanicztool (E) architect:blueprint 9. FOOD : NOURISH :: (A) organ : secrete (B) fluids : circulate (C) cells : degenerate (D) antibodieszprotect (E) fatszsaturate lO. HACK : CARVE :: (A) grind : polish (B) snip : mince (C) hew : fell (D) whet; blunt (E) gougezengrave ll. DETOXIFY : POISON :: (A) detemtine : certainty (B) destabilizezdeviance (C) disguisezcostume (D) dissolvezliquid (E) dehydratezwater 12. SUPERIMPOSEzABOVE: (A) permeatezbeside" (B) focuszaround (C) insert 2 between (D) splice : below (E) fusezbehind 517 l3. [4. 15. ‘16. i ‘ TAMPER : ADJUST :: (A) misrepresentzcommunicate (B) warp2deform (C) confess : tell (D) mar:deface (E) underminezstop METAPHOR : LITERAL :: (A) biography : accurate (B) melody2spoken (C) poem: rhythmic (D) anthem : patriotic (E) balletzintricate u COURAGE: RASHNESS :: (A) generosityzprodigality (B) temperance:modesty (C) mettlezspin't (D) honorzhumility (E) compassionrcontempt PRBCIENCE ; FUTURE :: (A) irrationality:sanity (B) predictability : past (C) irasdbilityzemotions (D) erudition : esoten'ca: (E) talkativeness : loquacity GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. Directions: Each passage in this group is followed by questions based on its content. After reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage. 19. According to thepassage, members of the Araneidae family can-be distinguished from members of the Uloboridae family by all of the following EXCEPT (A) the presence of venom glands! (B) the type of web they spin (C) the structure of their body hair- (D) the arrangement of their eyes , (E) their appearance _ One of the questions of interest in the study of the evolution of spiders is whether the weaving of orb webs evolved only once or several times. About half the 35,000 known kinds of spiders make webs; a third of the web weavers make orb webs. Since most orb weavers belong either to the Ar...
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