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Bigbook_26 - SECTION 2 Time—30 minutes 38 Questions...

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Unformatted text preview: SECTION 2 Time—30 minutes 38 Questions . .- , Directions: Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Beneath the sentence are five lettered words or sets of words. Choose the word or set of words for each blank- that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole. 1. The Chinese, who began systematic asrronomical and weather observations shortly after the ancient Egyptians, were assiduous record-keepers, and because of this, can claim humanity’s longest contin- uous of natural events. (A) defiance (B) documentation (C) maintenance (D) theory (E) domination . .2. Because many of the minerals found on the ocean floor are still . on land, where mining is rela- tively inexpensive, mining the ocean floor has yet to become a —— enterprise. _ n______.,(A) scarce “common-” ,...._,_ . (B) accessible. .marginal (C) unidentified. .subsidized (D) conserved. .public . “pm—CE)" plentiful- .profitable r vu- . 3. The valedictory address, as it has developed in American colleges and universities over the years, has become, a very strict form, a literary that permits very little . (A) text. .clarity (B) work. .tradition (C) genre. .deviation (D) oration. .grandiloquence (E) achievement. .r'igidity 4. A human being is' quite —-—- creature, for the gloss of rationality that covers his or her fears and ----- -- is thin and often easily breached. (A) alogical. .problems (B) afrail. .insecurity (C) a valiant. .phobias (D) an ambitious. .morality (E) a ludicrous. .laughter 1014 5. Although the passage of years has softened the initially hostile reaction to‘his poetry, even now only a few independent observers '-—---- his works. (A) praise (B) revile (C) scrutinize (D) criticize (E) neglect 6. Unlike philosophers who constructed theoretically ideal states, she built'a theory based on ; thus, although her constructs may have been inelegant, they were -— sound. (A) reality. .aesthetically (B) intuition. intellectually (C) surmise. scientifically (D) experience. .empirically (E) conjecture. .factually 7. Once a duckling has identified a‘parent, the instinc— tive bond becomes a powerful for‘additional ‘ learningsince,‘ by :; the parent, the duckling can acquire further information that is not genetically transmitted. (A) impulse. .surpassing = (B) referent. .recognizing (C) force. acknowledging (D) inspiration. .emula‘ting (E) channel. .mimicking GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. _.-: retairectiomlen-eaeh of the following questions. a related 13. RENOUNCE : PLEDGE :: pair of words or phrases is followed by five lettered pairs (A) exculpate : viCtirn of words or phrases. Select the lettered pair that best (B) desecrate : shrine expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the (C) recriminate : hero original pair. 8‘ INFLATE : BURST :: (A) atrophy : evaporate l4. COWARD : CRAVEN :: p (B) pull : tear (A) liar: facetious (C) expose : hide (B) dupe : gullible (D) excavate:increase (C) commentator:caustic (E) break:shatter (D) judgezimpartial (E) criminal : hostile 9. FLIP: RESPECT:: (A) curt : ignorance 15. ENFRANCHISE : VOTE :2 (B) bleak : firmness - (A) advertise : sell (C) wry : humor (B) fumigate : kill (D) nonchalant : concern (C) filter: purify (E) rash : promptness (D) illuminate : see (E) ignite : bum lO. REQUEST: COMMAND :: (A) propose:stipulate 16. STRUT:WlNG:: (B) enlist : support (A) beam : door (C) relegate : consign (B) axle : wheel (D) volunteer : accept (CY guy 5 Pylon (E) select : reject (D) root: plant (E) twig: branch ll. BOUNDLESS : LIMIT :: (A) truncated : length (B) voracious: appetite (C) impeccable: flaw (D) fascinating : interest ' ' (E) syncopated : beat GO ON To THE NEXT PAGE 12. MOLT ; BIRD :: (A) slough : snake (B) hibernate:bear (C) metamorphose : spider h (D) shuck : oyster (E) hatch: egg 1015 (D) redeem : honor (E) rescind : order Directions: Each passage in this group is followed by questions based on its content. After reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in , that passage. As Gilbert White, Darwin, and-others observed long ago, all species appear to have the innate capacity to increase their numbers from-generation to generation. Lin, The task for ecologists is to untangle the environmental (5) and biological factors that hold this intrinsic capacity for population growth in check over the long run. The great variety of dynamic behaviors exhibited by different pop- ulations makes this task more difficult: some popula- tiOns remain roughly constant from year to year, others (10) exhibit regular cycles of abundance andscareity; still others vary wildly, with outbreaks and crashes that are in some casesplainly’correlated with the weather, and in other cases not. ’ . To impose some. order on this kaleidoscope of pat- (15) terns, one school of thought proposes dividing popula- tions into two groups. These ecologists posit that the relatively steady populations have “density-dependent” growth p'arameters;.that is, rates of birth, death, 7 and migration which depend strongly on population (20) density. The highly varying pOpulations have “density- independent” growth parameters,.with vital rates buf-. feted by environmental events; these rates fluctuate in a —-way'that‘is Wholly 'independent‘of‘populhttid’n‘densiti “ ’ ' This dichotomy has its uses, but it can cause prob- (25) lems if taken too literally. For one thing, no population can be driven entirely by density—independent factors all "* "thetimeI‘N‘o matter‘how seVerely'o'r‘tinprédicmbly'birth, death, and migration rates may be fluctuating around their long-term averages, if there were no density- dependent effects, the population would, in the long run, either increase or decrease without bound (barring a mir- acle by which gains and losses canceled exactly). Put another way, it may be that on average 99 percent of all deaths in a population arise from density-independent causes, and only one percent from factors varying with density. The factors making up the one percent may seem unimportant, and their cause may be correspond- ingly hard to determine. Yet, whether recognized or not, they will usually determine the long-term average popu- lation density. In order to understand the nature of the ecologist’s investigation, we may think of the density-dependent effects on growth parameters as the “signal” ecologists are trying to isolate and interpret, one that tends to make the population increase from relatively low values or decrease from relatively high ones, while the density- independent effects act to produce “noise” in the popu- lation dynamics. For populations that remain relatively constant, or that oscillate around repeated cycles, the signal can be fairly easily characterized and its effects described, even though the causative biological mecha- nism may remain unknown. For irregularly fluctuating populations, we are likely to have too few observations to have any hope of extracting the signal from the over- whelming noise. But it nOW seems clear that all popula- tions are regulated by a mixture of density—dependent and density-independent effects in varying proportions. (30) (35) (‘40) (45) '50) 55) 1016 V: m 1' l s g, ‘ x 17. The author of the passage is'primarily concernéd with j. (A) discussing two categories of factors that control population growth and assessing their relative importance (B) describing how growth rates in natural popula- tions fluctuate Over time and explaining why these changes occur . ' (C) proposing a hypothesis concerning population sizes and suggesting ways to test it (D) posing a fundamental question about environ- mental factors in population growth and pre- senting some currently accepted answers (E) refuting a commonly accepted theory about population density and offering a new alter- native , . * . It can be inferred from the passage that the author considers the dichotomy discussed in the second paragraph to be . (A). applicable_only_to _erraticallyfluctuating.popu-_ lations (B) useful, but only if its limitations are recognized (C) ‘dange'rously misleading in most circumstances (D) a complete and sufficient way to account for observed phenomena (E) conceptually valid, but too confusing to apply on a practical basis . Which of the following statements can be inferred from the last paragraph? (A) For irregularly fluctuating populations, dou- bling the number of observations made will probably result in the isolation of density- dependent effects. (B) Density-dependent effects on population dynamicsdo not occur as frequently as do density-independent effects. (C) At present, ecologists do not understand any of the underlying causes of the density— dependent effects they observe in population dynamics. (D) Density—dependent effects on growth parame- ters are thought to be caused by some sort of biochemical "signaling" that ecologists hepe eventually to understand. (E) It is sometimes possible to infer the existence of a density—dependent factor controlling popu- lation growth without understanding its causative mechanism. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. h 20‘ According to the paSsage. which of the following is a true statement about density«dependent factors in population growth? (A) They ultimately account for long-term popula- tion levels. (B) They have little to do with long-term popula- tion dynamics. ’ , , (C) They are always more, easily isolated and described than those that are density- indeptndent. (D) They include random environmental events. (E) They contradict current ecological assumptions about population dynamics. . According to the passage, all of the following behav- iors have been exhibited by different populations EXCEPT ' (A) roughly constant population levels from year to year (13) regular cycles of increases and decreases in numbers (C) erratic increases in numbers correlated with the weather (D) unchecked increases in numbers over many gen- era tions _ (E) sudden declines in numbers from time to time 1017 72 ‘ n .. The discussion concerning population in lines 24-40 serves primarily to (A) demonstrate the difficulties ecologists face in studying density-dependent factors limiting population growth » (B) advocate more rigorous study of density- dependent factors in populationgrow‘th (C) prove that the death rates of any population are , never entirely density-independent (D) give an example of how death rates function to limit population densities in typical popula- tions (E) underline the importance of even small density- dependent factors in regulating long-term population densities . In the passage, the author does‘allof the following EXCEPT (A) cite the views of other biologists (13) define a basic problem that the passage addresses, (C) present conceptual categories used by other biologists (D) describe the results of a particular study (E) draw a conclusion GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. Line (5) {10) (J5) ' identities and‘roles. ' _ (Q)ganalyzethAe/fundamental. dramatic conflicts in 26. In which of the following does the author of the passage reinforce his criticism of re5pq‘nses such as Isaacs’ to Raisin in the Sun? ’ ‘ (A) The statement that Hansberry is “loyal” (line 3) to the American dream (B) The description of Hansberry’s concern for Black Americans as “intense” (line 13) (C) The assertion that'Hansberry is concerned with “human solidarity” (line 15) . (D) The description of Du Bois’ ideal as “well- considered” (line 17) . (E) The description of Fanon’s intemationaiism as “ideal” (line 19) ‘ In Raisin in the Sun, Lorraine Hansberry does not reject integration or the economic and moral promise of the American dream; rather, she remains loyal to this dream while looking, realistically, at its incomplete real- ization. Once we recognize this dual vision, we can accept the play’s ironic nuances as deliberate social com- mentaries by Hansberry rather than as the “uninten- tional irony that Bigsby attributes to the work. Indeed, a curiously persistent refusal to credit Hansben‘y with a capacity for intentional irony has led some critics to interpret the play’s thematic conflicts as mere confusion, contradiction, or eclecticism. Isaacs, for example, cannot easily reconcile Hansbet‘ry’s intense concern for her race with her ideal of human reconciliation. But the play’s complex view of Black self-esteem and human solidarity as compatible is no mOre “contradictory” than Du Bois’ famous,,wel.l-considered ideal of ethnic self-awareness coexisting with human unity, or Fanon’s emphasis on an ideal internationalism that also accommodates national 27. The author of the passage would probably consider which of the following judgments to be most similar to the reasoning of critics described in lines 8-12 7 (A) The world is certainly flat; therefore, the-person proposingto sail around it is unquestionably foolhardy. . (B) Radioactivity cannot be directly perceived; therefore, a scientist could not possibly con- “trol it in‘a‘labor’atoryi ’ " ’ ’ a ' ' ‘ '7 V ' ’ (C) I The painter of this picture could not intend it to be funny; therefore, its humor must result ‘from a lack of skill. (D) Traditional social mores are beneficial to cul- ture; therefore, anyone who deviates from them acts destructively. (E) Filmmakers who produce documentaries deal exclusively with facts; therefore, a frlrnmaker who reinterprets particular events is mislead- ing us. 24. The author’s primary purpose in this passage is to (é)__§>£fl§ip_sotns_c:ri_tici lcfiusal_to_consider,Raisin, , ,__. . in the Sun a deliberately ironic play (B) suggest that ironic nuances ally Raisin in the Sun with Du Bois’ and Fanon’s writings Raisin in the Sun (D) justify the inclusion of contradictory elements . in Raisin in the Sun 7 (E) affirm the thematic coherence underlying Raisin in the Sun . It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following about Hansberry’s use of irony in Raisin in the Sun? (A) It derives from Hansberry’s eclectic approach to dramatic structure. (B) It is justified by Hansberry’s loyalty to a favor- able depiction of American life. (C) It is influenced by the themes of works by Du Bois and Fanon. (D) 'It is more consistent with Hansberry’s concern for Black Americans than with her ideal of human reconciliation. (E) It refleCts Hansberry’s reservations about the extent to which the American dream has been realized. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 1018 Directions: Each question below consists of a word printed in capital letters. followed by five lettered words or phrases. Choose the lettered word or phrase that is most nearly Opposite in meaning to the word in capital letters. Since some of the questions require you to distinguish fine shades of meaning. be sure to consider all the choices beforetdeciding which one is best. 28. ADVOCATE: (A) rectify (C) observe (D) denounce (B) enforce (E) reimburse (B) smooth (E) permeable 29. CORRUGATED: (A) pliant (C) fragile (D) vaporous (B) acclaimed (E) aier’. 30. COVERT: (A) acquainted (C) spontaneous (D) open 31. EXTRANEOUS: (A) fruitful (B) expeditious (C) neutral (D) relevant (E) precipitous 32. DISTENSION: (A) release (B) dilution (C) implosion (D) angularity (E) compression u) LII 36. 37. 38. 1019 ~ . COBW’ERSANCE: (A) anonymity 1 (B) brexity (C) lack of familiarity (D) lack of manners (E) lack of enthusiasm EMBOSS: (A) turn over (B) flatten out (C) whittle away (D) ro‘ughen (E) unfold QUOTIDIAN: (A) resourceful (B) serious (C) unusual (D) expensive (E) combative TORRIDNESS: (A) solubility (C) fngidtty (D) viscosity (B) volatility (E) purity OPPROBRIUM: (A) - good repute (B) fair recompense (C) fidelity (D) exposure (E) patience DISABUSE: (A) afflict with pain (B) lead into error (C) force into exile (D) remove from grace (E) free from obligation SECTION 5 Time—3O minutes 38 Questions Directions: Each sentence below has one or two blanks. 5. The legislators of 1563 realized the -—-— of trying to each blank indicating that something has been omitted. regulate the flow of labor without securing its reason- Beneath the sentence are five lettered words or sets of able remuneration. and so the Second part of the words. Choose the word or set of words for each blank statute dealt with establishing wages. that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole. (A) intricacy (B) mgr), (C) futility (D) necessity (E) decadence 1. Nearly two-thirds of the country’s mushroom crop is PTOduced by 160 270%” in a Single county, the 6. Scientists who are on the cutting edge of research gnaw“ gmwcrs anywhere‘ must often violate common sense and make seem- (A) cause of 1:1eg -—— assumptions because existing theories (B) agreement among ' ’ simply do not -——- newly observed phenomena. (C) mdmm“ °f (A) radical. .confirrn ' (D) interaction between (E) concentration of (B) vague"inc°m°m[° " I \ (C) absurd. .explain (D) mistaken. .reveal 2. The disjunction between educational objectives that (E) inexact. corroborate i stress independence and individuality and those that _ emphasize obedience to rules and cooperation with t . - . ‘ that mm from the values on 7. The With which the French aristocracy greeted others reflects a . which these objectives at: b I ‘ the middle-class Rousseau was all the more _ - _ because he showed so little respect for them. (A) conflict (B) redundancy (C) gain (A) d cream . . . . . e. -. remarkable (D) predictabihtyv (E) Wisdom (B) supidonuunmy I (C) reserve. unexpected 3. It is for a government to fail to do whatever it (D) anger. .ironic . can to eliminate a totally disease. (E) appreciation. .deserved (A) folly. .innocuous 7 (B) irresponsible. preventable (C) crucial. .fatal . (D) instinctive. .devastating a v . (E) detrimental. insignificant _ GO ON TO THE NEXI' sheaf“ 4. Dramatic literature often the history of a cul- ture in that it takes as its subject matter the impor- . tant events that have shaped and guided the culture. (A) confounds (B) repudiates (C) rempitulates ' - ‘ ' 'f'”: ‘Zi'w'r' (D) anticipates (E) polarizes 1033 Directions: In each of the following questions, a related 13. LOG : SHIP :: pair of words or phrases is followed by five lettered pairs (A) archive : data of words or phrases. Select the lettered pair that best (B) inventory: store ‘ expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the (C) roster : team original pair. ‘ (D) bulletin : event _ _ ' (E) diary:person 8‘. BRUSHzPAINTINGzz - 7 ~ 7 I . (A) piano; sonata . _ _ 14. APOLOGIZE:CONTRITE:: ' (B) bodyzdanOe (A) aggravatemontemptuous (C) Wm : navel - (B) endorse: esteemed - ' (D) Chi-5d 1 sculpturc 7 H , , r (C) rextcnuatc : guflty- 77 7 77 777 77777 7 (Erwioiqtisdiloquy (D) comphentzimpressed f ' " - (E) rationalizezmodest él'iiidfifiiisom ‘éé , ' (A) V°1fid°°tficiry 15. EUPHEMISM:OFFENSE:: (B) odometer:distance (A) rhetoriczpersuasion , t (C) radiuszcircle . , (B) prevaricationztmth ‘ ‘ - (D) color:1ight' ‘ L T .(C) metaphorzdescn'ption ‘ V (E) wavelengthzspectrum " (D) repetitionzboredom » (E) conciliationzappeasement , ‘ 10. DIPLOMAT:TACT :: _ .__(A)_adminism1m;cdncafion~-—_ _.__.. ~7-—777746.—SENSITIZATION+ALLERGI€1: _. 7---- t ‘ (B)‘merdiant:catalog _ (A) immunitywulnerable (C) politicianzflamboyance (B) habituationzinured :_ (D) inveumtzingenuity .e _ - (C) invigorationzstimulating (E) accountantiflegtibilig h___w_ _ _ _ (D) ,sleepzanesthetic ,,_ _, (E) disinfectionzprcventive ll. A'l'ITORNEY:DISBAR:: (A) monarchzabdicate (B) emissaryzdebrief (C) officerzdemote (D) landlord : evict : l i (E) Student exPc GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. 12. DIRGE:MUSIC:: _ (A) fableznan'ative (B) elegy:poetry (C) violin:strings . a. (D) rhymeztone ' a (E) heroinezcharacter 1034 ‘ \ Directions: Each passage in this group is followed by questions based on its content. After reading a passage. choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions following a passage on the basislof what is stated or implied in that passage. Some rec...
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