PHY101_Chap9Fall09

# PHY101_Chap9Fall09 - Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids States of...

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Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids

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States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma
States of Matter Solid : Hold volume; hold shape Liquid : Hold volume; adapt shape Gas : Adapt volume; adapt shape Plasma : gas of mixed negative/positive charges

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Which state of matter is associated with the very highest of temperatures? 1. liquid 2. plasma 3. gas 4. solid Quiz Qn. 1
Deformation of Solids All objects are deformable It is possible to change the shape or size (or both) of an object through the application of external forces when the forces are removed, the object tends to its original shape This is a deformation that exhibits elastic behavior

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Elastic Properties Stress is the force per unit area causing the deformation Strain is a measure of the amount of deformation The elastic modulus is the constant of proportionality between stress and strain For sufficiently small stresses, the stress is directly proportional to the strain The constant of proportionality depends on the material being deformed and the nature of the deformation
The quantity “stress” expressed in terms of the fundamental quantities (mass, length, time) is equivalent to: 1. MLT -1 . 2. ML -1 T -2 . 3. M 2 L -1 T -3 . 4. a dimensionless quantity. Quiz Qn. 2

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Elastic Modulus The elastic modulus can be thought of as the stiffness of the material A material with a large elastic modulus is very stiff and difficult to deform
Young’s Modulus: Elasticity in Length Tensile stress is the ratio of the external force to the cross- sectional area The elastic modulus is called Young’s modulus SI units of stress are Pascals, Pa 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 The tensile strain is the ratio of the change in length to the original length Strain is dimensionless

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Breaking If stress continues, it surpasses its ultimate strength The ultimate strength is the greatest stress the object can withstand without breaking The breaking point
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PHY101_Chap9Fall09 - Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids States of...

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