PHY101_Chap10Fall09

# PHY101_Chap10Fall09 - Chapter 10 Thermal Physics Thermal...

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Chapter 10 Thermal Physics Thermal physics is the study of Temperature Heat How these affect matter

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10.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics If objects A and B are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third object, C, then A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other. Allows a definition of temperature
Temperature Two objects in thermal equilibrium with each other are at the same temperature Temperature is the property that determines whether or not an object is in thermal equilibrium with other objects

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Which best describes the relationship between two systems in thermal equilibrium? 1. temperatures are equal 2. volumes are equal 3. masses are equal 4. zero velocity Quiz Qn. 1
10.2 Temperature scales Common features: pick two known points and divide the range into some steps (degrees) Harder than you think--You can’t really see temperature, and can’t really feel it with consistency. Fahrenheit scale Excuse: first try Quite messed up: 0 o F and 100 o F don’t quite mean anything, although 100 is roughly the body temperature. Celsius scale Water freezing point: 0 o C Water boiling point: 100 o C

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Ice point: 0 o C, 32 o F Boiling (steam) point: 100 o C, 212 o F Celsius degrees are bigger steps than Fahrenheit degrees (therefore Fahrenheit scale has bigger numbers, most of the time) F = 9/5C + 32 Quick check: If C = 0 o C, F = 32 o F If C = 100 o C, F = (9/5) x 100 + 32 = 212 o F Another form of the equation: C = (5/9)(F – 32)
The Kelvin Temperature Scale Motivation: 1. To get people more confused 2. Temperature actually has an absolute 0 In thermal physics, temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy of atoms oscillating, or moving, in gases, liquids and solids. When atoms stop moving, temperature = 0 Kelvin (K) Because Celsius scale was kind of “scientific”, Kelvin scale also divides ice and steam points by 100 degrees (so that conversion is easy) (SI unit) 0 K = -273.15 o C = -459.67 o F The coolest; absolutely the coolest A temperature we can get close to, but can never get there Coldest temperature in my lab: 0.01 K (10 mK!)

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