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handout%201 - BIPN 102 Spring 2009 Meng Zhang...

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BIPN 102 Spring 2009 Meng Zhang q4zhang@ucsd.edu OH: Thursday 3-4pm @ Roma Handout 1: Respiratory System I. Respiratory System Anatomy A. Conducting vs. Respiratory Zone Conducting Zone Respiratory Zone Contains Nasal/oral cavity pharynx trachea 1* bronchi (1/lung) 2* bronchi bronchioles Respiratory bronchioles (contain some alveoli) alveolar ducts alveolar sacs Gas Exchange? No Cross-sectional Area High Air Flow Bulk Flow Question : What is the difference between physiological and anatomical dead space? B. Upper Airways vs. Bronchioles Upper Airways Bronchioles Structure Cartilage rings; supported by bone rigid structure Smooth muscle; collapsible Bronchoconstriction? None 1. Autonomic (parasympathetic): Ach + mAch Rs 2. Local: histamine, leukotrienes (e.g. in allergic reactions) Bronchodilation? None Autonomic (sympathetic): Epinephrine β2 R C. Alveoli There are two types of alveolar cells: 1. Type I: flattened epithelial cells; gas exchange occurs 2. Type II: no gas exchange; secrete surfactant a. Surface tension – water molecules attracted to each other but not the air; are pulled along surface towards inside so tend to collapse lungs b. Surfactant – DPPC (dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine); decreases surface tension by coating surface of alveoli Question : A very small alveoli, despite its relatively small radius, does not collapse, why? *hint: Law of LaPlace*
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handout%201 - BIPN 102 Spring 2009 Meng Zhang...

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