Foundat - Fundamentals Prof DE Macphee Meston 039 [email protected] ext 2941 Chemistry3(p-3 Chemistry at the University of Aberdeen George

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Fundamentals Chemistry 3 (p-3) Prof DE Macphee, Meston 039 [email protected] , ext 2941
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James Clerk Maxwell 1831 - 1879 George Paget Thomson 1892-1975 Robert Brown 1773–1858 Frederick Soddy 1877 – 1956 George French (1765 - 1833), physician and professor of chemistry. - appointed professor of chemistry at Marischal College in 1793 - the earliest chair of chemistry in Great Britain Chemistry at the University of Aberdeen
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Applications of Chemistry in Society Kevlar and high tech materials Embraces interactions : • with plants, animals and humans through agriculture, biology and medicine • with the physical world through materials science, geology and physics, e.g. electronics, new building materials and new sources of energy. It affects the people of our planet, protecting and preserving our health, ecology, culture and heritage. Nafion and low temperature fuel cells Vancomycin and MRSA Chemistry - - embraces concepts of creation of molecules and the manipulation of atoms - deals with microscopic and macroscopic scales
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Forensic Science Earth Sciences Environmental Science Astronomy Biochemistry Chemistry forms the indispensable foundation of disciplines such as biology, medicine, and materials sciences Sustainability
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Consistency in Measurements, Units and Nomenclature IUPAC
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Concepts of dimensional analysis Always include both number and unit of physical quantities Example: Consider a volume of gas trapped in one arm of a U shaped tube (manometer) trapped air level of pressurisation P= ρ gh Extent of pressurisation, P = ρ gh ρ = density (kg.m -3 ) g = acceleration due to gravity (m.s -2 ) h = height difference (m) P (units of pressure Pa) = kg.m -3 x m.s -2 x m i.e. = kg.m -1 .s -2 = Nm -2 (kgms -2 x m -2 )
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10 -10 10 -9 10 -8 10 -7 10 -6 10 -5 10 -4 10 -3 m Length scales in context
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Temperature scales in context
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Nomenclature IUPAC name: (2S,5R,6R)-6-(benzamido)-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia- 1-aza-bicyclo(3.2.0)heptane-2-carboxylic acid penicillin G empirical formula: C 16 H 18 N 2 O 4 S IUPAC: phenylethene poly(phenylethene) Different names are commonly used for the same substance: acetic acid ethanoic acid calcite calcium carbonate ethylene ethene Nitroglycerine IUPAC: 1,3-dinitrooxypropan-2-yl nitrate IUPAC
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Atoms and the mole • the atom is the smallest entity which retains the chemical identity of an element The binding of electrons to the nucleus depends on the electronic structure of the atom - electrons are arranged in shells and sub-shells - electronic structure defines the chemical reactivity of the element (electrons in the valence shell )
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Mass spectrometry Chemical identity is defined by the atomic number The mass number = total number of protons and neutrons Frederick Soddy 1877 – 1956 Mass spectrometry can show different masses for the same element – different numbers of neutrons (existence of isotopes confirmed) Example shows hydrogen with 1 proton and 2 neutrons in the nucleus, i.e. tritium Hydrogen has three isotopes; hydrogen, deuterium and tritium (0, 1 and 2 neutrons)
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This note was uploaded on 01/03/2010 for the course ENGINEERIN H851 taught by Professor Potter during the Spring '09 term at University of Aberdeen.

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Foundat - Fundamentals Prof DE Macphee Meston 039 [email protected] ext 2941 Chemistry3(p-3 Chemistry at the University of Aberdeen George

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