Lecture 3 (Aug 31)

Lecture 3 (Aug 31) - Biological S nce 110A: I ntroduction...

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Lecture 3: Biological Macromolecules Classes of macromolecules Polymer formation Carbohydrates (polysaccharides) Classes and structure of lipids Composition of proteins (polypeptides) Classes of amino acids Biological Sciences 110A: Introduction to Biology Kendal Broadie Reading in Chapter 2 (42-54) Karp
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The stuff cells are made of: the approximate chemical composition of a “typical” cell Protein 18% Phospholipids 3% Misc. small metabolites 3% Other lipids 2% Polysaccharides 2% DNA 0.25% RNA 1.1% Inorganic ions (salts) 1% Water 70% Chemicals 30% lipids 5%
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Overview of the chemical composition of a cell DNA: Genetic material (nucleus) RNA: Carries instructions; some enzymatic functions (ribozymes) Protein: Most enzymes in cell, structure, transport Lipids: long-term energy storage, membranes, signaling Carbohydrates: short-term energy storage, structure Fig. 2.11 Karp
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A free pool of monomers assemble to form polymers Fig. 2.10 Karp sugars (poly saccharides) fatty acids (lipids) amino acids (poly peptides) nucleotides (poly nucleotides)
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“Carbohydrates” (CH 2 O) n , n=3-7 Two or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups, and a carbonyl (C=O), as an aldehyde or ketone Intermediates in energy metabolism Building blocks for “polysaccharides” 1. Storage CH 2 O (starch,
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Lecture 3 (Aug 31) - Biological S nce 110A: I ntroduction...

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