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Lecture 9 (Sept 14) - Exam 1 is on Friday in class...

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Exam 1 is on Friday, in class   The test will cover lectures 1-10  (this means  through Wednesday) Exam Review Wednesday!                   Here (SC4327) at 4pm Question-and-Answer Session Only!!!      Come  prepared with your questions I will stay as long as questions last only
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Lecture 9: Types of organelles & biochemical compartments  Overview of the endomembrane organelles  Membrane and protein trafficking (secretion)  Signal Hypothesis: cytosol to ER  Membrane translocation & transmembrane proteins  Molecular chaperones and protein folding  Formation of glycoproteins (glycosylation)  The Golgi Complex; trafficking & glycosylation Biological Sciences 110A: Introduction to Biology Kendal Broadie Reading Chapter 8: 274-298 Karp
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Eukaryotic cells have many membrane-bound organelles Cytosol  (many, many processes) Nucleus  (DNA genome, transcription and RNA  processing) ER  (synthesis of secretory and membrane proteins;  lipid metabolism)   Golgi  (processing and sorting of secretory and  membrane proteins) Endosomes  (processing and sorting incoming  materials) Lysosomes  (degradation/recycling) Peroxisomes  (detoxification) Mitochondria  (ATP synthesis) Chloroplasts  (photosynthesis)   See Fig. 8.1 Karp
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Relative numbers/volumes of some membrane-bounded organelles in  “typical” mammalian cell How are these membrane compartments maintained?
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Membrane flows throughout the endomembrane structures  continuously and rapidly Membrane is internalized from the plasma membrane through a  “vesicle budding”  process called  endocytosis . ~2-3% of the membrane internalized per minute! Membranous  vesicles fuse  with organelles to deliver membrane and vesicle contents. Fusion with the  plasma membrane called  exocytosis .   The entire membrane is recycled in less than 1 hr… See Fig. 8.2 Karp
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Membrane flow during exocytosis and endocytosis  is a delicate balance… Endocytosis internalizes membrane ~2-3% per  minute Exocytosis recycles entire membrane in less than 1  hr Block endocytosis, exocytosis continues: membrane area grows
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Membrane flow during exocytosis and endocytosis  is a delicate balance Block exocytosis, endocytosis continues: membrane area shrinks Endocytosis internalizes membrane ~2-3% per  minute Exocytosis recycles entire membrane in less than 1  hr
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Briefly (minutes) label newly  made proteins in secretory cell  with radioactive amino acids ( 3 H- leucine,  14 C-leucine,  35 S-
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