ucsd30 - Chapter 3 Heredity How are traits inherited Johann...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Heredity: How are traits inherited Johann Gregor Mendel • Analyzed patterns of inheritance in 1860’s • Monk; Conducted his experiments in a monastery garden located in Brno, Czech Republic • First scientist to demonstrate that parents pass on heritable factors responsible for inherited traits onto their offspring Figure 3.1 Johann Gregor Mendel 1822-1884 • Used pea plants for most of early experiments largely because he could control fertilization. Figure 3.1 Fig. 3.1 Fig. 3.2 Experimental Design • Large sample size • One pair of traits at a time • Repeated experiments • Analyzed his data with probability and statistics Mendel’s Peas Why peas? • Identifiable traits • Self fertilizing with a flower structure that minimizes accidental pollination • Can be artificially fertilized • Short growth period Johann Gregor Mendel • Examined 7 observable features of pea plants that had two alternative forms Johann Gregor Mendel • Cross-Fertilization : Took pollen from one plant and used it to fertilize the female carpel. Seeds developed in the pods and developed into plants. • Mendel crossed parents with different pea characteristics and looks at the characteristics of the offspring. Genotype : Genetic makeup; What the alleles are (PP,Pp,or pp). Phenotype : Observable traits (Purple or White flowers) H omozygous : When both alleles are the same (PP or pp) Heterozygous : Alleles are different (Pp) Mendel’s Experiments • True Breeding – self fertilization produces the same traits for many generations • P 1 – parental generation • First Filial (F 1 ) – offspring of P 1 Definitions needed to understand Mendel’s Experiments • P 1 – parental generation • First Filial (F 1 ) – offspring of P 1 • Second Filial (F 2 ) – offspring of F 1 X F 1 Monohybrid cross • Crossed two parents that differed in only one trait (seed shape) • Crossed round seed parent X wrinkled seed plant • F1 Generation: All round • Crossed F1 offspring to each other • F2 Generation: 3/4 round seed;1/4 wrinkled Mendel’s Results Same for all 7 traits • F 1 showed only one of two parental traits • All crosses were the same; it did not matter which plant the pollen came from • Trait not shown in F 1 reappeared in 25% of F 2 Fig. 3.4 From Mendel’s Results...
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ucsd30 - Chapter 3 Heredity How are traits inherited Johann...

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