ucsd30 - Chapter 3 Heredity: How are traits inherited...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Heredity: How are traits inherited Johann Gregor Mendel Analyzed patterns of inheritance in 1860s Monk; Conducted his experiments in a monastery garden located in Brno, Czech Republic First scientist to demonstrate that parents pass on heritable factors responsible for inherited traits onto their offspring Figure 3.1 Johann Gregor Mendel 1822-1884 Used pea plants for most of early experiments largely because he could control fertilization. Figure 3.1 Fig. 3.1 Fig. 3.2 Experimental Design Large sample size One pair of traits at a time Repeated experiments Analyzed his data with probability and statistics Mendels Peas Why peas? Identifiable traits Self fertilizing with a flower structure that minimizes accidental pollination Can be artificially fertilized Short growth period Johann Gregor Mendel Examined 7 observable features of pea plants that had two alternative forms Johann Gregor Mendel Cross-Fertilization : Took pollen from one plant and used it to fertilize the female carpel. Seeds developed in the pods and developed into plants. Mendel crossed parents with different pea characteristics and looks at the characteristics of the offspring. Genotype : Genetic makeup; What the alleles are (PP,Pp,or pp). Phenotype : Observable traits (Purple or White flowers) H omozygous : When both alleles are the same (PP or pp) Heterozygous : Alleles are different (Pp) Mendels Experiments True Breeding self fertilization produces the same traits for many generations P 1 parental generation First Filial (F 1 ) offspring of P 1 Definitions needed to understand Mendels Experiments P 1 parental generation First Filial (F 1 ) offspring of P 1 Second Filial (F 2 ) offspring of F 1 X F 1 Monohybrid cross Crossed two parents that differed in only one trait (seed shape) Crossed round seed parent X wrinkled seed plant F1 Generation: All round Crossed F1 offspring to each other F2 Generation: 3/4 round seed;1/4 wrinkled Mendels Results Same for all 7 traits F 1 showed only one of two parental traits All crosses were the same; it did not matter which plant the pollen came from Trait not shown in F 1 reappeared in 25% of F 2 Fig. 3.4 From Mendels Results...
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ucsd30 - Chapter 3 Heredity: How are traits inherited...

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