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ucsddna1 - November 6 2009.1-3 Chi square problem just set...

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November 6, 2009 (Chap 10, 12.1-3), Chi square problem just set the equation DNA structure and replication Discovery of DNA structure Rosalind Franklin used X-ray crystallography to determine that DNA was a helical model Watson and Crick constructed models based upon this data and determined that DNA consists of two intertwined DNA molecules with the structure described above * Understand DNA Structure DNA is made up of nucleotide monomers Each nucleotide monomer is made up of: sugar (deoxyribose) nucleotide base (Adenine (A),Guanine (G),Cytosine(C), or Thymine(T)) phosphate group Nucleotide: Closer look Linking nucleotides together to make polynucleotide strands… Phosphodiester bond linking 5’phosphate with 3’ sugar of next nucleotide Chargaff’s rules: A=T;G=C…so (A+G)/ (T+C) =1 The two strands are arranged antiparallel One strand begins with a 3’ deoxyribose sugar group and ends with a 5’phosphate. The other strand begins with the 5’phosphate and ends with a 3’deoxyribose sugar group RNA Single polynucleotide strand Ribose sugar Uses U in place of T So A on a DNA or RNA molecule will pair with U on RNA Complementary bases within single-stranded RNA molecules often pair forming complex secondary structures These include hairpin consisting of a stem of complementary bases and a loop of non
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complementary bases DNA secondary Structures B-form Alpha helix; clockwise spiral Predominates under most cellular conditions including abundance of water 10 bp turn Produces minor and major grooves that proteins like transcription factors or restriction endonucleases can bind A-form Smaller,wider Conditions of little water Little physiological evidence Z-form Left-handed helix Zig-zag phosphate sugar backbone Prevalent in transcribed regions of DNA… important in gene expression
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