ucsdgen2 - Chapter 2 Chromosomes and Cellular Reproduction...

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Chapter 2 Chromosomes and Cellular Reproduction
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Cells The basic functional units of all living things Human cells vary widely but all have similar basic Cell structure and function are under genetic control Many genetic disorders result in changes in cellular structure and function
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What is the cell theory? Every form of life either is a cell or is composed of cells Every cell comes from a cell o You cannot make a cell from scratch o Nature only made up cells once several billion years ago
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Two Types of cells: Prokaryotes (before- nucleus) Eukaryotes (true-nucleus) Who is who Bacteria and archaea Everything else (plants,animals,fungi,proti sts) DNA No nucleus Nucleus (DNA surrounded by membrane Size Small Big Organization Single-cell Often multicellular Metabolism Many do not need oxygen Most do need oxygen Organelles No Yes
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Biggest difference between pro and euk how their cells are organized Eukaryotic cells are much more compartmentalized compared to prokaryotes
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Contain organelles “tiny organs” These are smaller parts of the cell, surrounded by membranes that separate their contents from the rest of the cell.
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Each organelle can specialize in performing its function The result is that the cells can do more and more complex functions
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Increased complexity of Eukaryotic cells reflected by the organization and transmission of genetic material (DNA) DNA protected by nucleus
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Prokaryotic cell production Single,circular DNA Asexual reproduction Makes identical copy of DNA Copies migrate to opposite sides; cell wall forms Result:Two identical cell copies
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Nucleus Largest organelle Enclosed by a double-layered membrane Pores allow communication between nucleus and cytoplasm Contain Nucleoli that synthesize ribosomes Chromatin; condenses into 46 chromosomes during division for humans
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Eukaryotic cells usually have : Multiple linear DNA molecules complexed with histone proteins Histone + DNA= Chromatin
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Human Chromosomes DNA and associated proteins are organized into chromosomes DNA+ histone proteins= Chromatin
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Chromosomes The genome of most eukaryotes is too big to put on a single piece of DNA. It is broken up into separate chromosomes. Each chromosome carries 1000’s of genes Humans have 46 chromosomes 22 pairs of autosomes and XX or  XY Females XX Males XY
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Telomeres: Ends of chromosomes Important for stability Centromere: Central region of chromosomes Duplicated chromosomes ( sister chromatids ) remain attached until separated during mitosis Chromosome Structure
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ucsdgen2 - Chapter 2 Chromosomes and Cellular Reproduction...

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