Biomolecules Lecture_7_Lipids

Biomolecules Lecture_7_Lipids - Biomolecules and Metabolism...

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Lecture 7 - Lipids Biomolecules and Metabolism
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Lipids 1. Heterogeneous group of water-insoluble (hydrophobic) organic molecules 2. Soluble in organic solvents 3. Compartmentalized or transported by plasma in association with proteins
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Locations Membranes ! Phospholipids Adipocytes ! Triglycerides Mitochondria ! Fat Droplets Bloodstream ! Lipoproteins
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Functions 1. Membrane structure 2. Energy storage: adipocyte and mitochondria 3. Activation of enzymes: particularly membrane bound 4. Hormones and bile acids 5. Source of second messengers: eicosinoids, leukotrines, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, steroid hormones
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Classifications 1. Fatty Acids 2. Acylglycerides 3. Phospholipids 4. Sphingolipids 5. Steroids 6. Lipoproteins
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Fatty Acids 1. Important components of many lipid molecules (e.g. membrane lipids, storage lipids, signaling molecules etc.) 2. Monocarboxylic acids (i.e. alkyl chain with a terminal carboxylic acid group at the end) 3. FA’s are numbered from the carbonyl group 4. The number of carbons is usually even
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Chain Length Short Chain 2 - 4 carbons Medium Chain 6 - 10 carbons Long Chain 12 - 26 carbons Classification Metabolic Fuel Fatty Acids C16 Palmitic Acid C18 Stearic Acid C20 Arachadonic acid
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Essential Fatty Acids Fatty acids that cannot be synthesized de-novo, are referred to as essential fatty acids Linoleic: Prostaglandins, leukotrines Linolenic: Healing, membrane function, proper coupling of oxidative phosphorylation Classification
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Saturated vs. Unsaturated The R group (alkyl) is normally linear Saturated fatty acids contain carbon atoms that are saturated with hydrogen atoms Classification
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Saturated vs. Unsaturated Unsaturated fatty acids contain carbons with double bonds Classification
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Biomolecules Lecture_7_Lipids - Biomolecules and Metabolism...

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