Biomolecules Lecture_5_CHO

Biomolecules Lecture_5_CHO - Biomolecules and Metabolism...

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Lecture 5 - Carbohydrates Biomolecules and Metabolism
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Hydrocarbon Backbone C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H …(n) (n) R
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Alcohol OH R OH Aldehyde R CHO Ketone R CO R O (n)
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Nature of Carbohydrates Polyhydroxy Aldehydes and Ketones Represent 1-2% of cell mass Combination of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms General formula (CH 2 O) n n = from 3-7 carbon atoms H and O attached by single bonds
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Functions Energy Intracellular communication Structural components
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Categories of Carbohydrates 1. Monosaccharides 2. Disaccharides 3. Oligosaccharides 4. Polysaccharides
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Monosaccharides Single-chain or single-ring structure containing from 3-7 carbon atoms Structural units or building blocks of the other CHO’s Smallest carbohydrate (CHO) unit Cannot be broken down to yield a CHO of fewer carbon atoms More than 200 monosaccharides exist in nature
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Monosaccharides • Number of carbon atoms in the chain • Nature of the carbonyl group Categorization
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Number of Carbon Atoms 3 carbons Trioses (e.g. glyceraldehyde) 4 carbons Tetroses (e.g. erythrose, threose) 5 carbons Pentoses (e.g. ribose, arabinose) 6 carbons Hexoses (e.g. glucose, fructose, galactose) 7 carbons Haptoses 9 carbons Nonoses Hexose sugars represent the nutritionally important monsaccharides Categorization
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