BE230_Lecture_24&25 - Cell Structure Function BE230...

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Cell Structure & Function BE230 Dr Christine Loscher Lecture 13/14
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(2) Tyrosine-Kinase-associated Receptors Many cell-surface receptors depend on tyrosine phosphorylation for their activity and yet lack an obvious tyrosine kinase domain These receptors act through cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases , which are associated with the receptors and phosphorylate various target proteins, often including the receptors themselves, when the receptors bind their ligand The receptors thus function in much the same way as receptor tyrosine kinases, except that their kinase domain is encoded by a separate gene and is noncovalently associated with the receptor polypeptide chain.
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Tyrosine-Kinase-associated Receptors As with receptor tyrosine kinases, these receptors must oligomerize to function Many of these receptors depend on members of the largest family of mammalian cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, the Src family of protein kinases These protein kinases all contain SH2 and SH3 domains and are located on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane
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Cytokine receptors Cytokine receptors are the largest and most diverse class of receptors that rely on cytoplasmic kinases to relay signals into the cell They include receptors for many kinds of local mediators (collectively called cytokines ), as well as receptors for some hormones These receptors are stably associated with a class of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases called Jaks ( Janus kinases) , which activate latent gene regulatory proteins called STATs ( s ignal t ransducers and a ctivators of t ranscription), The STAT proteins are normally inactive, being located at the cell surface; cytokine or hormone binding causes them to migrate to the nucleus and activate gene transcription
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