21524186-Computer-Organization-Articture-No-2-from-APCOMS

21524186-Computer-Organization-Articture-No-2-from-APCOMS -...

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COA by Athar Mohsin Introduction Lecture 02
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COA by Athar Mohsin Introduction Advancement in computer system related to development of high performance 16-bit, 32 bit and 64 bit microprocessor architecture and microcomputer system IBM PC – the first microcomputer 1981, a 16 bit MP 8088 Few years later PC/AT: personal computer advanced technology, 80286 Intel’s 80486: the first 32 bit MP Today Pentium IV based PC/AT industry standard Advancement is due to VLSI technology 50,000 or more software are available for these PC
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COA by Athar Mohsin Why study computer organization and architecture? Design better programs, including system software such as compilers, operating systems, and device drivers Writing complex program and algorithm- need a computer run efficiently Some algorithms infeasible today-could be feasible tomorrow – Current rate of innovation predict this Optimize program behavior • Why the implementation of feasible algorithm running slowly See the program from computer’s point of view – Understanding of computer working is important Evaluate (benchmark) computer system performance Concept of benchmarking is important for computer professional How hardware interact with the software • Understand time, space, and price tradeoffs. Overview
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COA by Athar Mohsin Architecture & Organization Architecture is those attributes visible to the programmer Instruction set, number of bits used for data representation, I/O mechanisms, addressing techniques. e.g. Is there a multiply instruction? All Intel x86 family share the same basic architecture Organization is how features are implemented Control signals, interfaces, memory technology. e.g. Is there a hardware multiply unit or is it done by repeated addition? Organization differs between different versions
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COA by Athar Mohsin Overview Computer organization Addresses issues such as control signals (how the computer is controlled), signaling methods and memory types Encompasses all physical aspects of computer systems. • E.g., circuit design, control signals, memory types. How does a computer work? Computer architecture Focus on the structure and behavior of the computer system and Refer to Logical aspects of system implementation as seen by the programmer. • E.g., instruction sets, instruction formats, data types, addressing modes. How do I design a computer?
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COA by Athar Mohsin Computer Components There is no clear distinction between matters related to computer organization and matters relevant to computer architecture. In microcomputers the distinction is very close • Changes in technology influence both organization and architecture Principle of Equivalence of Hardware and Software: Anything that can be done with software can also be done with hardware, and anything that can be done with hardware can also be done with software.*
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