21524226-Computer-Organization-Articture-No-3-from-APCOMS

21524226-Computer-Organization-Articture-No-3-from-APCOMS -...

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COA by Athar Mohsin Introduction Lecture 03
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COA by Athar Mohsin Last week Overview Computer organization Encompasses all physical aspects of computer systems. E.g., circuit design, control signals, memory types. How does a computer work? Computer architecture Logical aspects of system implementation as seen by the programmer. E.g., instruction sets, instruction formats, data types, addressing modes. How do I design a computer? At the most basic level, a computer is a device consisting of three pieces: A processor to interpret and execute programs A memory to store both data and programs A mechanism for transferring data to and from the outside world.
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COA by Athar Mohsin Hertz = clock cycles per second (frequency) 1MHz = 1,000,000Hz – Processor speeds are measured in MHz or GHz. cycle time is the reciprocal of clock frequency. • A bus operating at 133MHz has a cycle time of 7.52 nanoseconds: Byte = a unit of storage – 1KB = 2 10 = 1024 Bytes – 1MB = 2 20 = 1,048,576 Bytes Main memory (RAM) is measured in MB – Disk storage is measured in GB for small systems, TB for large systems. Millisecond = 1 thousandth of a second – Hard disk drive access times are often 10 to 20 milliseconds. Nanosecond = 1 billionth of a second Main memory access times are often 50 to 70 nanoseconds. Micron (micrometer) = 1 millionth of a meter Circuits on computer chips are measured in microns. Measuring units 133,000,000 cycles/second = 7.52ns/cycle
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An Example System Computers with large main memory capacity can run larger programs with greater speed than computers having small memories. RAM is an acronym for random access memory . Random access means that memory contents can be accessed directly if you know its location. Cache is a type of temporary memory that can be accessed faster than RAM. I/O Ports Serial ports send data as a series of pulses along one or two data lines. Parallel ports send data as a single pulse along at least eight data lines. USB, Universal Serial Bus, is an intelligent serial interface that is self-
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21524226-Computer-Organization-Articture-No-3-from-APCOMS -...

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