Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - NPB 101, Autumn 2008 Endocrinology 3....

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1/7/10 Endocrinology 3. Endocrine Glands That are Not Primary Targets of the Anterior Pituitary Calcium Regulating Hormones NPB 101, Autumn 2008
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1/7/10 Five major types of endocrine secretions not under direct control of the pituitary gland Hormones of the immune system. E.g. monokines and lymphokines Osmoregulatory hormones such as aldosterone (Renin- angiotensin system), atrial natriuretic factor Neural hormones from the pineal (melatonin) and adrenal medulla (catecholamines) Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas (e.g. gastrin, Calcium regulating hormones such as parathormone, calcitonin and vitamin D
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1/7/10 Some are regulated primarily by the autonomic nervous system (e.g. the adrenal medulla) Others respond directly to circulating metabolites such as calcium (parathormone, calcitonin, vitamin D) Circulating glucose (pancreatic hormones), also fatty acids and amino acids To compounds in the gastro-intestinal tract (the G.I. tract hormones gastrin, secretin and cholecystokinin)- direct environmental effects Some hormones from the anterior pituitary may influence activity of these peripheral endocrine tissues but these effects
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1/7/10 Calcium regulation and the hormones that control it Low blood calcium results in uncontrolled muscle contractions (hyper excitability of membranes); decreased activation of cell enzymes; inhibition of blood clotting and reduced cell adhesion Phosphates act as buffers; are important in synthesis of nucleic acids, phosphoproteins, phospholipids and the phosphorylation of proteins Additionally, both calcium and phosphate are major components of bone and teeth Calcium and phosphate mobilization, deposition and storage, and absorption from the gut are regulated by three major
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1/7/10
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1/7/10
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1/7/10 Centr al canal Osteocyte Canalicu li Lamell a Osteon Blood vessel from marrow Centra l canal Vessel in central canal Fig. 19-20, p. Stepped art
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1/7/10 Osteobla st Outer surfac e Osteocy te Canalic uli Osteocytic– osteoblastic bone membrane Mineralize d bone Bone fluid Osteobla st Blood vessel Central canal Lamella e Fig. 19-21a, p.
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Compact Bone. This image shows osteocytes within their lacunae. Note the basophilic cytoplasm of the osteocytes and the dark
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2010 for the course NPB idk taught by Professor Wingfield during the Spring '09 term at UC Davis.

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Lecture 10 - NPB 101, Autumn 2008 Endocrinology 3....

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