Lecture 8

Lecture 8 - NPB 101, Autumn 2008 Endocrinology 1 What do...

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1/7/10 NPB 101, Autumn 2008 Endocrinology 1 What do hormones do? Hypothalamo-pituitary unit Posterior pituitary
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1/7/10 Sensory modalities for external cues Auditor y Visua l Chemical (taste/smell) Tactil e Barorecept or Types of internal cues Blood glucose, amino acids, free fatty acids, vitamins, minerals etc. Infection and other diseases Salt and water balance Endogenous rhythms -
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1/7/10 Function of Neurotransmitters, Hormones, etc. Hormones affect synthesis and release of other hormones Influence metabolism Stimulate muscle contraction Regulate reproduction Integrate growth Control osmoregulation Permissive actions Behavioral effects Facultative Neurotransmitters propagate or terminate electrical signals, influence muscle contraction at neuromuscular junctions, affect hormone release, or other secretions such as enzymes, regulate ion and other channels etc.
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1/7/10 Hormone type – what does it do? Mechanism of control (of synthesis and secretion) Mechanism of action (receptors etc.)
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1/7/10 Fig. 5-13, p. 149 An oversimplified linkage sequence among functional areas of the cortex in relation to input and output. Hypothalamus and neuroendocrine secretions
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1/7/10 Environmental Hypothalamu s ? ? ? ? Neurohypophy sis Tropic effects on peripheral endocrine tissues, e.g. on Effects on largely non- endocrine tissues, e.g. skeleton, muscles, adipose Effects on smooth muscle contraction (vascular system, genital tract), Brai n Brain peptides central actions
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1/7/10 Endocrine tissues that are not principle targets of the hypothalamo-pituitary unit Parathyroid and ultimobranchial cells that regulate calcium levels in cells and blood. Gastro-intestinal tract cells that orchestrate digestion. Pancreatic endocrine cells that control blood sugar levels as well as amino acid and fatty acid uptake. Liver cells that release vitamin D (calcium uptake from gut) or pre-hormones. Kidney cells that release an enzyme renin involved in activating hormones that regulate sodium retention. Adrenal chromaffin cells that release catecholamines. Skin, heart, cells of the immune system and perhaps most cells of the body that release peptides with paracrine or true
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1/7/10 Fig. 18-5, p.
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1/7/10 Mammal hypothalamo-pituitary unit Third ventricle Pars nervosa Median eminence Hypothalamo- Portal vessels Pars distalis Pars intermedia
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1/7/10 Pars
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1/7/10 Cells communicate by secreting chemical messengers
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1/7/10 Brain peptides are typically cleaved from large precursor molecules, sometimes more than one per precursor. Often, they are modified post-cleavage by amidation, acetylation,sulphation, glycosylation and phosphorylation Brain peptides Expressed in hypothalamus and other areas of the brain. Often expressed in other areas of the body as well, particularly G.I. tract and skin. Their actions can be autocrine, paracrine, neuroendocrine and endocrine.
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2010 for the course NPB idk taught by Professor Wingfield during the Spring '09 term at UC Davis.

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Lecture 8 - NPB 101, Autumn 2008 Endocrinology 1 What do...

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