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Wingfield 3 - NPB101,Autumn2008 Endocrinology 3 Endocrine...

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Endocrinology 3. Endocrine Glands That are Not Primary Targets of the Anterior Pituitary Calcium Regulating Hormones NPB 101, Autumn 2008
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Five major types of endocrine secre=ons not under direct control of the pituitary gland Hormones of the immune system. E.g. monokines and lymphokines Osmoregulatory hormones such as aldosterone (Renin‐angiotensin system), atrial natriure=c factor Neural hormones from the pineal (melatonin) and adrenal medulla (catecholamines) Hormones of the gastrointes=nal tract and pancreas (e.g. gastrin, secre=n, cholecystokinin, insulin and glucagon) Calcium regula=ng hormones such as parathormone, calcitonin and vitamin D
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Some are regulated primarily by the autonomic nervous system (e.g. the adrenal medulla) Others respond directly to circula=ng metabolites such as calcium (parathormone, calcitonin, vitamin D) Circula=ng glucose (pancrea=c hormones), also faNy acids and amino acids To compounds in the gastro‐intes=nal tract (the G.I. tract hormones gastrin, secre=n and cholecystokinin)‐ direct environmental effects Some hormones from the anterior pituitary may influence ac=vity of these peripheral endocrine =ssues but these effects tend to be "fine‐tuning" regula=on and not the primary control mechanisms
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Calcium regula=on and the hormones that control it Low blood calcium results in uncontrolled muscle contrac=ons (hyper excitability of membranes); decreased ac=va=on of cell enzymes; inhibi=on of blood clo[ng and reduced cell adhesion Phosphates act as buffers; are important in synthesis of nucleic acids, phosphoproteins, phospholipids and the phosphoryla=on of proteins Addi=onally, both calcium and phosphate are major components of bone and teeth Calcium and phosphate mobiliza=on, deposi=on and storage, and absorp=on from the gut are regulated by three major hormones: parathormone, calcitonin and vitamin D
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Central canal Osteocyte Canaliculi Lamella Osteon Blood vessel from marrow Central canal Vessel in central canal Fig. 19‐20, p. 719 Stepped art
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Osteoblast Outer surface Osteocyte Canaliculi Osteocy=c– osteoblas=c bone membrane Mineralized bone Bone fluid Osteoblast Blood vessel Central canal Lamellae Fig. 19‐21a, p. 722
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Compact Bone. This image shows osteocytes within their lacunae. Note the basophilic cytoplasm of the osteocytes and the dark staining nuclei. See also the delicate canaliculi that radiate from each lacuna.
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Compact Bone. In the upper central por=on of the image is a cross sec=on of a Haversian System, including the Haversian canal, osteocytes within lacunae and the concentric lamellae. Note again the presence of numerous canaliculi radia=ng from the lacunae.
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Compact Bone. The pointer indicates a Haversian canal with
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