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Mammal hypothalamo-pituitary unit Third ventricle Median eminence Pars intermedia Pars nervosa Pars distalis Hypothalamo- Portal vessels Pars
Expressed in hypothalamus and other areas of the brain. Brain peptides are typically cleaved from large precursor molecules, sometimes more than one per precursor. Often, they are modified post-cleavage by amidation, acetylation,sulphation, glycosylation and phosphorylation Their actions can be autocrine, paracrine, neuroendocrine and endocrine. They typically have multiple receptor types and biological actions depend on where they are expressed and secreted and where their receptors are located. Often expressed in other areas of the body as well, particularly G.I. tract and skin. BRAIN Mammalian
Substance P CCK Caeruleins Bradykinins Gastrin Neurotensin Enkephalins & endorphins Dermorphin-like peptides TRH Somatostatin Bombesin-like peptides VIP Angiotensin I & II? angiotensin II Corticotropin-releasing factor Sauvagine-like peptides Urotensin-like peptides GUT Mammalian
Substance P CCK Bradykinins Gastrin (7) Neurotensin Enkephalins & endorphins Dermorphins TRH Somatostatin Bombesin-like peptides VIP Angiotensin I & II Corticotropin-releasing factor Sauvagine-like peptides Urotensin-like peptides SKIN Amphibian
Tachykinins Bradykinins Xenopsin TRH ? Bombesin VIP Crinia Sauvagines Sauvagines Sauvagines Effects of Brain Peptides Behavioral Effects:
Pain Memory and learning Feeding Sexual behavior Drinking Hypnotic effects Non-behavioral effects:
Temperature regulation Blood pressure Neuroendocrine The VIP family of peptides. Amino acid similarities with VIP shown in red. VIP, vasoactive intestinal peptide; PACAP, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide; GHRH, growth hormone releasing hormone; GIP, gastric inhibitory peptide. Multiple VIP receptors. Representation of the structural organization of human VIP receptor 1 gene and cDNA. Lower panel: VIP receptor 2 (prepared by A.J. Harmar). Multiple roles of VIP: in gut (motility), brain (behavior and control of pituitary hormone secretion) How ironic in these rational times to be labeled intestinal when one has a part to play that's so much more subliminal what loftier, elevated role than to keep the brain more temperate and what more worthier goal than help true lovers consummate. Excerpt from a poem by Dr. John A. Bevan...
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- Spring '09