Wingfield 1

Wingfield 1 - NPB101,Autumn2008 Endocrinology1...

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NPB 101, Autumn 2008 Endocrinology 1 What do hormones do? Hypothalamo‐pituitary unit Posterior pituitary
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Sensory modaliBes for external cues Auditory Visual Chemical (taste/smell) TacBle baroreceptor Types of internal cues blood glucose, amino acids, free faKy acids, vitamins, minerals etc. InfecBon and other diseases Salt and water ±alance Endogenous rhythms ‐ ±iological clock
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FuncBon of NeurotransmiKers, Hormones, etc. Hormones a±ect synthesis and release of other hormones Influence metabolism SBmulate muscle contracBon Regulate reproducBon Integrate growth Control osmoregulaBon Permissive acBons ²ehavioral e±ects FacultaBve acBons NeurotransmiKers propagate or terminate electrical signals, influence muscle contracBon at neuromuscular juncBons, a±ect hormone release, or other secreBons such as enzymes, regulate ion and other channels etc.
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Hormone type – what does it do? Mechanism of control (of synthesis and secreBon) Mechanism of acBon (receptors etc.)
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Fig. 5‐13, p. 149 An oversimplifed linkage sequence among ±uncBonal areas o± the cortex in relaBon to input and output. Hypothalamus and neuroendocrine secreBons
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Environmental cues Hypothalamus ? ? ? ? Adenohypophysis Neurohypophysis Tropic efects on peripheral endocrine Bssues, e.g. on thyroid, adrenals, gonads and liver Efects on largely non‐ endocrine Bssues, e.g. skeleton, muscles, adipose Bssue, integument and liver Efects on smooth muscle contracBon (vascular system, genital tract), water balance, kidney ±rain ±rain pepBdes central acBons
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Endocrine Bssues that are not principle targets of the hypothalamo‐pituitary unit Parathyroid and ulBmobranchial cells that regulate calcium levels in cells and blood. Gastro‐intesBnal tract cells that orchestrate digesBon. PancreaBc endocrine cells that control blood sugar levels as well as amino acid and faKy acid uptake. Liver cells that release vitamin D (calcium uptake from gut) or pre‐hormones. ±idney cells that release an enzyme renin involved in acBvaBng hormones that regulate sodium retenBon. Adrenal chromaffin cells that release catecholamines. Skin, heart, cells of the immune system and perhaps most cells of the body that release pepBdes with paracrine or true endocrine acBons (e.g. growth factors).
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Fig. 18‐5, p. 662
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Mammal hypothalamo-pituitary unit Third ventricle Pars nervosa Median eminence Hypothalamo- Portal vessels Pars distalis Pars intermedia
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Pars intermedia
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Cells communicate by secreBng chemical messengers
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Brain peptides are typically cleaved from large precursor molecules, sometimes more than one per precursor. Often, they are modified post-cleavage by amidation, acetylation,sulphation, glycosylation and phosphorylation Brain peptides Expressed in hypothalamus and other areas of the brain. Often expressed in other areas of the body as well, particularly G.I. tract and skin.
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Wingfield 1 - NPB101,Autumn2008 Endocrinology1...

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