Lec 8 Speciation - Species and Speciation Sep 14th, 2009...

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Species and Speciation Sep 14 th , 2009 Reading: Relethford Ch 4
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Outline Founder effect, mutations, island model and selection coefficient Species and Speciation Homology vs. Homoplasy
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10,000 100,000 Founder effect 1000 10 A:50%, a:50% Founder effect,
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Shem, Ham, & Japheth Sons of Noah Founder effect,
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According to Genesis 10, Noah had three sons: Ham , forefather of the southern peoples, Hamitic Africa Shem , forefather of the middle peoples Semitic: Semitic peoples and their languages, in both modern and ancient historic times, have covered a broad area bridging Africa, Western Asia and the Arabian Peninsula Japheth , forefather of the northern peoples, Japhetic Eurasia Founder effect,
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Mutations are changes to the nucleotide sequence of the genetic material of an organism. Germ line Mutations vs. Somatic Mutations Mutations Mutation is the ultimate source for genetic variation, thus the evolution Neutral, advantageous, and disadvantageous mutations. Mutation Environments!
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Mutation Rate vs. Evolutionary Rate Mutation Rate Selection filter, positive or negative Evolutionary rate * * * * * Red : deleterious mutations X Black: neutral mutations ? Green : advantageous mutations Neutral, advantageous, and disadvantageous mutations. Mutation
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Mutation Rate vs. Evolutionary Rate Non-degenerate : if any mutation at this position results in amino acid substitution Twofold degenerate : if only two of four possible nucleotides at this position specify the same amino acid Fourfold degenerate : if any nucleotide at this position specifies the same amino acid Rate
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Exon Exon Intron Mutation
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Lec 8 Speciation - Species and Speciation Sep 14th, 2009...

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