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Lec 9 Human Genome

Lec 9 Human Genome - Organization of the Human Genome-an...

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Organization of the Human Genome -an Evolutionary Product Sep 16 th , 2009 Reading: Strachan & Read, Ch9-1, 9-3, 9-5
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Outline Introduction to the Human Genome Evolution of Repetitive Elements Evolution of Gene Duplication
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1956 Physical map for human: 46 chromosomes with 24 different types 1977 Sanger publishes first sequencing method 1980 Botstein et al propose RFLP human genetic mapping 1988 HUGO is established by NIH 1990 Official launch of the HGP with 3 billion $ for a 15 year project 1991 Genome Database GB is established 1995 Lander et al. detailed map based on sequence tagged sites. 1998 Comprehensive map based on gene markers. 1999 Sanger Centre publishes chromosome 22 2001 Draft Genome published: Celera & Public 2003 Completion (almost) of Human Genome History of the Human Genome Project
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Introduction Human Genome Project
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Public effort- strategy: Celera - strategy: Human Genome Project : Sequencing Strategies Introduction
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Personal Genome Craig Venter James Watson Introduction Shadow 1000 genome project
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The Human Genome I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 X Y 15 14 13 12 10 11 21 20 19 18 17 16 22 279 251 221 197 198 176 163 148 140 143 148 142 118 107 100 104 88 86 72 66 45 48 163 51 Introduction
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Nuclear Genome Mitochondria Highly conserved - coding 1.5% 93% Highly conserved - other 3.5% 5% Transposon based repeats 45% - Mendelian inheritance Maternal inheritance 1 (typically) Possibly thousands Recombination No recombination Gene Density: 1/130 kb 2 kb Introduction The Human Genome II
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Transposons: sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called transposition Introduction
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