Lec 12 Sexual selection - Natural Selection & Sexual...

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Sep 23 th , 2009 Reading, Freeman & Herron Ch 11
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African populations have higher genetic diversity Neutral evolutionary rate equals the neutral mutation rate Proportionally more deleterious genetic variation in European than in African populations Understand the following three statements:
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Natural Selection and Variation Detecting Natural Selection Sexual Selection
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Neutralist and selectionist models of molecular evolution Deleterious Deleterious Neutral Neutral Advantageous Advantageous Neutralist Neutralist Selectionist Selectionist Neutralist theory is not anti-Darwinist, but claims that fixation through selection occurs at low frequency
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In nature, there is a struggle for existence The condition of “excess” fecundity, where female produce more offspring than that can survive, is universal in nature.
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Natural selection includes both positive and negative selection Evolutionary changes (such as adaptation or positive selection) Absence of evolutionary changes (such as negative or purifying selection) Balancing selection, kin selection etc.
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Natural selection operates if the following conditions are met: A. Reproduction. Entities must reproduce to form a new generation A. Heredity. The offspring must tend to resemble their parents A. Variation in individual character among the members of the population A. Variation in the fitness of organisms according to the state they have for a heritable character
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A. Morphological level B. Cellular level (Human chromosomal structure variation) C. Biochemical level (e.g. protein function) D. DNA level (e.g. SNPs between individuals) Widespread Variation in natural population
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Real butterfly wing!
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Human copy number variation region (1,447 CNVR in 270 individuals) Redon et al, Nature, 2006
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There are millions of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites between two sets of chromosomes in each individual!
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Natural Selection and Variation Detecting Natural Selection Sexual Selection
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Lec 12 Sexual selection - Natural Selection & Sexual...

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