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Pre Lim 2 Questions

Pre Lim 2 Questions - Prelim 2 Fat Transport What protein...

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Prelim 2 Fat Transport What protein markers do LDLs have? (Apo-B only) What protein markers to IDLs have? (Apo-B, Apo-C, and Apo-E) Where do chylomicron transport fats to/from? (To the liver, from the epithelial cells of the small intestine) In what form are the fats? (Triglycerides) What enzyme must be activated in adipose tissue in order for VLDLs and IDLs to deposit lipids? (Lipoprotein Lipase) What activates lipoprotein lipase in adipose cells? (Insulin) What happens if an LDL particle is oxidized in the arteries? (WBC cannot leave artery wall either, so they are both stuck and form a foam cell) Atherosclerosis True/False: Atherosclerotic buildup does not begin until around age 30 in most individuals (False - most individuals have buildup by late adolescence) Where does atherosclerotic buildup usually begin in the arteries? (At branching points) Name three ways that you can minimize your risk of developing atherosclerosis. How does drinking small amounts of alcohol lower your risk of developing atherosclerosis? (raises HDL) True/False: If you eat 1 less gram of cholesterol, then your body will produce 1 more gram of cholesterol. (False – not a 1:1 ratio) Explain what might happen to an LDL after it is trapped in arterial walls. (WBC might “save” it from the arterial walls, HDL might “save” it from the arterial walls and take it back to the liver for repackaging as a VLDL, or it might become oxidized with a WBC and form a foam cell in the arterial wall) What three nutrients are important to maintain dietary requirements to prevent atherosclerosis? (B6, B12, and folic acid) What nutrient is necessary in the formation of preprothrombin? (Vitamin K) What are AGE particles and what disease causes them to be formed? (Advanced Glycosylation Endproducts, formed due to diabetes)
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What is CRP and what does it indicate? (C-reactive protein, and the amount released shows how advanced atherosclerosis is. CRP is a predictor of heart attack and stroke ) What does a heart attack feel like? (Uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness, or pain) True/False: The pain or discomfort associated with a heart attack may radiate to your arms, back, neck, jaw, or stomach. (True) How long after a heart attack do you have to get to a hospital? (5 minutes) What is the term for when RBCs block an artery anywhere in your body? (Thrombosis) Measuring Energy What does a bomb calorimeter measure? (Caloric content in foods) What does an RQ of 1 tell you about an individual’s energy use? (You are using purely carbohydrates as a substrate for energy) Why is/isn’t BMI an effective measure of body composition? (Doesn’t take muscle mass into account, so it’s not a good indicator of an individual’s body composition, but is good for population studies in general) Theories of Eating What dietary effect is observed in mice after a lesion of the LH? (Anorexia, reduced
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