A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance

A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance -...

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ARTICLE A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease S. Lindeberg T. Jönsson Y. Granfeldt E. Borgstrand J. Soffman K. Sjöström B. Ahrén Received: 1 May 2007 /Accepted: 4 May 2007 /Published online: 22 June 2007 # Springer-Verlag 2007 Abstract Aims/hypothesis Most studies of diet in glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes have focused on intakes of fat, carbo- hydrate, fibre, fruits and vegetables. Instead, we aimed to compare diets that were available during human evolution with more recently introduced ones. Methods Twenty-nine patients with ischaemic heart disease plus either glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes were ran- domised to receive (1) a Palaeolithic ( Old Stone Age ) diet ( n =14), based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts; or (2) a Consensus (Mediterra- nean-like) diet ( n =15), based on whole grains, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruits, fish, oils and margarines. Pri- mary outcome variables were changes in weight, waist cir- cumference and plasma glucose AUC (AUC Glucose 0 120 ) and plasma insulin AUC (AUC Insulin 0 120 ) in OGTTs. Results Over 12 weeks, there was a 26% decrease of AUC Glucose 0 120 ( p =0.0001) in the Palaeolithic group and a 7% decrease ( p =0.08) in the Consensus group. The larger ( p = 0.001) improvement in the Palaeolithic group was indepen- dent ( p =0.0008) of change in waist circumference ( 5.6 cm in the Palaeolithic group, 2.9 cm in the Consensus group; p =0.03). In the study population as a whole, there was no relationship between change in AUC Glucose 0 120 and changes in weight ( r = 0.06, p =0.9) or waist circumference ( r =0.01, p =1.0). There was a tendency for a larger decrease of AUC Insulin 0 120 in the Palaeolithic group, but because of the strong association between change in AUC Insulin 0 120 and change in waist circumference ( r =0.64, p =0.0003), this did not remain after multivariate analysis. Conclusions/interpretation A Palaeolithic diet may im- prove glucose tolerance independently of decreased waist circumference. Keywords Diet . Evolution . Glucose intolerance . Ischaemic heart disease . Palaeolithic diet . Type 2 diabetes Abbreviations BIA bioelectrical impedance analysis E% percentage of total energy intake HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance IFG impaired fasting glucose IGT impaired glucose tolerance IHD ischaemic heart disease NGT normal glucose tolerance Introduction Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes are common risk factors for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) [ 1 , 2 ], which negatively affect the long-term prognosis after myocardial infarction [ 3 , 4 ]. In fact, cross-sectional studies have found only 35 54% of IHD patients have normal glucose tolerance (NGT) [ 5 11 ]. Increased physical activity, Diabetologia (2007) 50:1795 1807 DOI 10.1007/s00125-007-0716-y
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A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance -...

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