ExampleTPF08 - This is an example of a good but NOT perfect term paper The Impact of Vitamin E Supplementation on Cardiovascular Disease In 2003

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This is an example of a good but NOT perfect term paper! The Impact of Vitamin E Supplementation on Cardiovascular Disease In 2003, approximately 71 million Americans had one or more forms of cardiovascular disease according to the American Heart Association (AHA). Just fewer than one million lives were claimed by cardiovascular disease in that same year, accounting for 37.3 % of all deaths (AHA). Given these sobering statistics, it is easy to understand the controversy that swirls around the antioxidant Vitamin E, which has been hypothesized to help prevent cardiovascular disease. In normal metabolic processes within the body, oxygen reacts with other substances to form free radicals. Free radicals, though normal and necessary for chemical processes such as the removal of unwanted substances, are highly unstable due to their possession of a highly reactive unpaired electron. When unchecked, these free radicals can become very destructive, attacking cell membranes and starting violent chain reactions. These reactions can lead to atherosclerosis, the hardening of arteries that often results in major cardiovascular events (i.e. myocardial infarctions). The process by which free radicals damage and cleave essential chemical bonds within the body, promoting atherosclerosis, is referred to as lipid peroxidation. Vitamin E, an antioxidant, is thought to counteract lipid peroxidation by stopping free radical chain reactions by means of donating an electron to the unpaired electron of a free radical, thereby reducing its threat as a destructive and toxic reactant. Based on these chemical processes, it has long been hypothesized that vitamin E supplementation should directly counteract lipid peroxidation, which would in turn help to prevent cardiovascular disease. Some studies have in fact demonstrated a correlation between Vitamin E consumption and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (Rimm, etal., 1993). However, other more recent studies have rejected this hypothesis in 1
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conclusion that vitamin E supplementation is not a statistically significant preventative of cardiovascular disease (Lee, etal., 2005, HOPE, 2005 and Chiabrando, et al., 2002). Upon interpretation of these studies, it can be strongly asserted with sufficient evidence that Vitamin E supplementation does not reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. A study published by Rimm et al. (1993) from 1986 to 1990 found a significant correlation between vitamin E supplementation and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. This research is important in light of evidence that oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins is involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Although antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotene, had been thought to counteract potential atherosclerosis-causing processes, epidemiologic data on the subject at the time was minimal. In order to see if such antioxidants reduced the risk of cardiovascular disease, a study was
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2010 for the course NS 1150 taught by Professor Levitsky during the Fall '05 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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ExampleTPF08 - This is an example of a good but NOT perfect term paper The Impact of Vitamin E Supplementation on Cardiovascular Disease In 2003

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