g104_class5_properties_of_seawater

g104_class5_properties_of_seawater - Geography 104 -

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Properties of Seawater Last time talked about properties of water (Table 7.2) - dissolves solids and gases readily (“universal solvent”) Addition of dissolved solids over geologic time (billions of years) has converted pure water to “salt water” or seawater. Dissolved solids change water properties significantly: - density (very important for ocean circulation) - freezing point Geography 104 - “Physical Geography of the World’s Oceans”
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A salt, in chemistry, is an ionic compound composed of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge). Salts are formed by a chemical reaction between: - a base and an acid, e.g. NH 3 + HCl NH 4 Cl - a metal and an acid, e.g. Mg + H 2 SO 4 MgSO 4 + H 2 - a base and an acid anhydride, e.g. 2 NaOH + Cl 2 O 2 NaClO + H 2 O - an acid and a basic anhydride, e.g. 2 HNO 3 + Na2O 2 NaNO 3 + H 2 O - salts can also form if solutions of different salts are mixed, their ions recombine, and the new salt is insoluble and precipitates (see: solubility equilibrium), for example: Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) PbSO 4 (s) + NaNO 3 (aq)
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sources of salt ions sources sinks
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hydrogen bonds electrical attraction between water molecules
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water as a solvent salt has alternating ions; water molecules work their way between salt ions
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water as a solvent
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ocean solid salts would sink under gravity dissolved or “hydrated” salt ions have a charged attraction to water molecules and thus move exactly with the individual water molecule to which they are attached
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dissolved solids in seawater 99.9% of dissolved solids 99.3% < 1%
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2010 for the course GEOG 104 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at UCSB.

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g104_class5_properties_of_seawater - Geography 104 -

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