g104_class22-24_waves

g104_class22-24_waves - Geography 104 -...

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Ocean Waves - what is a wave? - wave characteristics - ocean surface gravity waves Geography 104 - “Physical Geography of the World’s Oceans” Readings (Ocean Waves): Text Chapter 10 (pgs 190 - 217) Reader pgs. 231 – 242 (wave related material)
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What is a wave? “In its simplest scientific form, a wave is an expression of the movement or progression of energy through a medium.” (Chamberlin and Dickey) “A wave is a disturbance that propagates through space and time usually with transference of energy.” ( Wikipedia )
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Ocean Wave Characteristics - propagating disturbance - characteristic length scale (wavelength) - characteristic time scale (period) - low frictional losses – thus able to travel long distances - energy transport (not water transport like currents*) - oscillatory (or cyclical) flow - weak interaction with other waves - movement depends on wave period and water depth - many types of waves in the ocean
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Types of ocean surface waves - waves need a generating mechanism, and a restoring force - at ocean surface , disturbing force is wind - capillary waves (wavelengths < ~1cm) are restored primarily by surface tension (of interest for remote sensing of the ocean) - surface gravity waves exist at air-sea interface and are restored by gravity - internal gravity waves (not wind driven) exist at density interfaces beneath the ocean’s surface and are restored by gravity
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internal and surface waves
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internal waves from space
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Fig. 10.6
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Types of wave motion - progressive waves oscillate uniformly and travel (progress) without breaking particles move back and forth in direction of wave motion; examples: sound waves, pressure waves particles move back and forth in direction perpendicular to wave motion; occurs primarily in solids particles move in “orbitals” with both “back- and-forth” and “side-to-side” movement; need interface to exist; surface gravity waves
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Fig. 10.9
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ocean surface waves
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wave crests wave crest
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wavelength wavelength
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wave movement 90°
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changing wave crests
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Fig. 10.4
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Fig. 10.5
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Definitions: (do on board) - crest - trough - amplitude - height - wavelength - wave period - wave frequency - wave steepness - phase speed (Equation 10.1)
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Ocean Waves (con’t) - wave (phase) speed of deep, intermediate, and shallow water waves - Stokes drift or wave drift - group speed (1/2 the phase speed in deep water) - wave generation (should have been #1) - wave interference (should have been #2)
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2010 for the course GEOG 104 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at UCSB.

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g104_class22-24_waves - Geography 104 -...

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