g104_class25-27_tides

g104_class25-27_tides - Geography 104 Ocean Tides and Sea...

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Ocean Tides and Sea Level - tide – “daily rise and fall of sea level” (C&D) - tide – distortions of sea by gravitational attraction of Moon and Sun on every part of Earth - tidal currents - small gravitational forces give rise to horizontal water movement - horizontal movement of water causes rise and and fall of sea level Geography 104 - “Physical Geography of the World’s Oceans”
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first order explanation of tidal patterns gravitational attraction
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daily tidal patterns - horizontal movement of water causes rise and and fall of sea level - can be represented as “waves” (periods ~12 or ~24 hours) - classified by period - diurnal tide (~1 cycle/day = 1 high, 1 low) - semidiurnal tide (~2 cpd = 2 highs, 2 lows) - mixed semidiurnal (2 highs and 2 lows not equal) - tidal day – time for one complete revolution of Earth beneath tidal bulges, ~24 hrs and 50 minutes
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diurnal tide tidal range = high tide water height – low tide water height
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semi‐diurnal tide
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mixed tide reference level for navigation: mean lower low water
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tidal components diurnal tide + semidiurnal tide mixed tide mixed tide
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Tab. 11.1
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tidal patterns
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Fig. 11.10
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daily tidal pattern details - actual tides depend on response of ocean to forcing - tidal currents can be very strong (~5 knots) - strongest currents typically near mouth of bays (i.e. SF Bay)
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20 Jan 25 30 1 Feb 5 10 15 20 25 1 Mar 5 10 16 Jan – 11 Mar 2007 1 spring‐neap tides Santa Barbara (tidal currents a few cm/s) diurnal tide semi-diurnal tide
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tide generating and raising forces - tides caused by gravitational attraction ( tide generating force ) - mostly by moon, but also by sun, negligible contribution from other bodies in solar system - technically, difference between gravitational force at Earth’s surface and Earth’s center gives rise to tides ( tide raising forces ) - gravitational force between two masses F G = G m 1 m 2 /d 2 F G - gravitational force between two masses G - gravitational constant m 1 , m 2 - masses d - distance
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http://home.xtra.co.nz/hosts/Wingmakers/Moons earth & moon comparison
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http://home.xtra.co.nz/hosts/Wingmakers/Moons earth & moon distance
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