303_305_STRUCTURE Packet_Fall 2009.2

303_305_STRUCTURE Packet_Fall 2009.2 - s sawicki (2009) 120...

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s sawicki (2009) 120 126 NONFINITE VERB PHRASES FUNCTIONS (not comprehensive) INFINITIVE Nominal subject To swim in the ocean makes her happy . To relax in the ocean can be dangerous. direct object She likes to swim in the ocean . He prefers to relax on the sand. subject complement-nominal Her goal is to swim in the ocean every day . His purpose was to relax in the sun. Adjectival Her goal to swim in the ocean is achievable. He has a wish to relax on the beach. Adverbial She lives to swim in the ocean every day . He goes to the beach to relax in the sun. PRESENT PARTICIPLE Nominal = GERUND subject Swimming in the ocean makes her happy . Relaxing in the ocean can be dangerous. direct object She likes swimming in the ocean. He enjoys relaxing under the sun. subject complement-nominal Her new job is swimming in the ocean .* His job is picking up trash on the beach . Adjectival noun modifier The swimming pool has too much chlorine . A relaxing day at the beach benefits the soul. subject complement-adjectival An ocean swim sounds relaxing to her. PAST PARTICIPLE Adjectival noun modifier The swum mile of the triathlon was the most difficult. subject complement-adjectival He looks quite relaxed under the sun . *ambiguous
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s sawicki (2009) 121 126 FUNCTION IN TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR FUNCTION ROLE Position SUBJECT Quixote brings Dulcinea hope. A nominal linguistic element that designates the "doer" of an action in an active verb construction, or the "receiver" of an action in a passive verb construction. Usually precedes a verb or a verbal PREDICATE Quixote brings Dulcinea hope . The part of a clause that delineates the action, makes the statement or assertion, asks the question, gives the command. Consists of main verb + preceding auxiliaries + modifiers + complement(s). In declarative sentences, usually occurs after the subject. Otherwise, position varies. COMPLEMENT A linguistic element or elements that complete the predication begun by a verb or a verbal. The various kinds of complements are listed below. Usually follows the verb or verb phrase. May occur in a predicate phrase or a verbal phrase. Direct Object (DO) Quixote brings Dulcinea hope . A nominal linguistic element that designates the receiver of the action of a transitive verb or verbal. Usually follows a verb or verbal. Indirect Object (IO) Quixote brings Dulcinea hope. A nominal linguistic element that designates the person, place, or thing that indirectly receives or is affected by the action of the verb or verbal. Also called "indirect" because this element is "understood" to be the object of the omitted (understood) preposition to or for . Usually occurs after a transitive verb or verbal, but before the DO. Object Complement
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303_305_STRUCTURE Packet_Fall 2009.2 - s sawicki (2009) 120...

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