phitest2 - NAME: STUDENT NUMBER: PI-II 1101 R: REASONING...

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Unformatted text preview: NAME: STUDENT NUMBER: PI-II 1101 R: REASONING AND CRITICAL THINKING Professor: Mark Raymond Brown S 1 Second Test: 57 marks worth 15 % of Final Mark __,_ '2 Closed Book 5 ’1 2 November 2007 4 - 5:30 pm MacDonald Hall, Room 146 Please answer each question, and write your answers in the space provided for on the pages of this test. If you need scrap paper, please use the reverse side of the pages of this test. I. For each of the following, circle the letter that corresponds to the best answer to the question. Each question is worth one mark. 1. P Q E-Q Above is an example of which valid argument form? a) Simplification 13) Addition \/ ® Conj motion 2/5 d) Affirmin g the Consequth 2. (A'B)-C (A'B) (3 Above is an example of which valid argument form? a) Modus Tollens @wtodus Ponens c) Disjunctive Syllogism d) Hypothetical Syllogism DJ Fr] 7E , “1|?” The argument form displayed above is known as: a) Denying the Antecedent b) Modus Panens c) Modus Tollens Above is an example of which valid argument form? adus T ollens b) Modus Ponens e) Disjunctive Syllogism d) Hypothetical Syllogism / f. / S. AVB Above is an example of which valid argument form? a) Modus T aliens b) Modus Ponens @isjunctive Syllogism d) Hypothetical Syllogism / Above is an example of which valid argument form? a) Disjunctive Syllogism Q ‘ ddition c) Conjunction d) Simplification 7. A-B The argument form above is known as: @611}!ng the Antecedent b) Modus Ponens c) Modus Tollem' d) Affirming the Consequent / M /, m, :2» 5 M 33:); 3: [‘71 j , ’ 8. If there is life on Mars, tlén therells adequate llfe support on Mars. If there is adequate life support on Mars, then a human mission to Mars is possible. ii't'i'e'r'é'i; BEE; £2,1352RE;Xi;ié:£§iii§§§§;§§§i§iéT """""""""" " The argument form above is known as: /’ a) ypotheticalSyllogism b) Disjunctive Syllogism c) Constructive Dilemma / d) Affirming the Consequth 9. PVQ Pm Q *8! The valid argument form above is known as: a) Hypothetical Syllogism b) Disjunctive Syllogism @nslructive Dilemma d) Affirming the Consequent 10. P'Q Above is an example of which valid argument form? @implification f b) Addition \/ c) Conjunction d) Affirming the Consequent II. In class we have noted that arguments can have premises or conclusions that are implicit. / In other words, they are implied; they are not openly or explicitly stated. In the argument that follows, discern whether or not it has an implicit premise or an implicit conclusion. In the space provided, state what is missing — for example, Implicit premise or Implicit conclusion — then, in the space below, state what the implicit premise or implicit conclusion is. This question is worth two marks. 1. People who play Nintendo for six hours a day have lots of free time. Thus, Adam must have lots of free time. Implicit I Adm pM-s Mutemlv 1% six haw; admj . 1/ III. For each of the following list the premises and conclusion(s) in standard form, then provide a diagram of the argument. The value of each question is noted in parentheses. 1. Here are sommflm you should major in English: you can become a better writer, you can read the classics of literature, and you don’t have to do all that math. (3) (I) You am became a 136W Writer, (99 Km 6M V8610r W 61099259 of Maxim. @ wdorfit AWE.’IiOd0fl/QWWM./ @ You 5119316! Major in l \ 2. Some philosophers do not com®$Nietzsche as a philosopher. They say that he was a great writer, or a madman, since he did go mad, but they refuse to see him as a philosopher. This is probably due to the fact that he wrote a horisms and wasn’ alwa 5 consistent. But Nietzsche often used argumentation to support his claims about traditional philosophical questions, And if a person uses argumentation to support his or her claims about traditional philosophical questions, then he or she is a philosopher. Thus, Nietzsche is a philosopher. (4) (9 If a my? “939 “’5”’“W“’tl9n‘éaswPP0rt his ar/wr clam; \ \r k T / $.07”in glgfimax P 'lwoph ad {Reimb'file’l M 0)" die is a @MetZSC/le 0PM M422)? M'gummiadimp sax/7pm his Claims Mom; «3) m0"*W.-.£ériéeé.?z>fii€d new”; (D 7A a Philosopher, IV. State whether each argument is valid or invalid, and then your decision in each case. Each question is worth two marks. 1. Maria scored higher on the logic exam than Ron did, and Ron scored higher than Kenneth. So Maria must have scored higher than Kenneth. a 115,6 WM true. prepay» CM a true concluside Vtié Gonna/mama . 0/ 2. Some/Ea}. are lawyers. Johnn 'saliar. Therefore, Johnny isalawyer. V In Vfl/l/lfii- me liq/re custom/gem Matteo/fines W‘ Same (mfg WW1 TM PYflmlSJa W W5;W‘¢WW {mge‘i’swfi j/fi i/e'poséiloie W johnny ME bewfial’sam? [mass owe/fit law an. 3, Kenneth scored lower on t e logic exam than aria, and Maria scored lower than Ron. So Kenneth must have scored higher than Ron. :15: i In Vii/{lid / ' / True Premises bur/75704192 cmClugz‘m. // ‘Kennegwt mutt AM flared [QM/er 7%,? p0”; 4. Some university professors are atheists. Jane is a university professor. Therefore, Jane is an atheist. invalid. l/~PY€-ml53‘l)laf samun‘rueréiha profess”; m Maintng ,\ Inge} \ ‘ W 5m stirrer university Professors area “#5635 What’s What: is be-qum arm/152m mt gm MW’ mm”? Wtfiém Manx Masts. - r 5. Because has potatoes, carro , and turnip in his refrigerator, he has some vegetables there. Yul/RM, 5mg premiserwqufl COHCMFW.'/ 2' heater/tee M M £154.— wkm foln ’5 rat/Woer waleW/uanwa V. In class we have considered three types of nondeductive arguments. For the following arguments, idflmWe argument that is employed, and then state whether it issw. If the argument is unsuccessful, explain why. If the argument is successful, explain why the premises make the conclusion close to certain, very likely, or somewhat likely. Each question is worth two marks. 1 . An animal has been @my sleeping bag. I’ve héard the faint sound of animals squeaking. A very small amount of my t_m_i1__r_1:rix has been eaten. It appears that asmallanimal has been gnawing upon my block of cheddar cheese. I was awakened by something lightly scurrying across my face last night. There are no signs of bears or other large mammals around. So, there must be mice or . . « . § sclun'rels [DEE/5:13? ounétbliyflmmé L/ mm, W €MW§ W fl Ctbsz a g: m , {a 15:31 still [we peaking that f a e E M 2 i f _ Zfihousands of psychic have been investigate srncent’lirgll’aite ningtggllith century. {fiery and 1 Qt our X has been investigate has been exposed as a fraud. This gives very good reason to think that all mpfirflqfid psychics are frauds. . l to W W916 Populfitlfm_ We mm— Sucte’ésfij. 1mm?“ W (mow/am". €79 m 99 e"\ 3. A random sgyey ofeéO/Ojnurses (of 350) from various departments at the General Hospital revealed mar/We overly tired, stressed out, and overworked. Jane is a nurse at the General G g Hospital. Therefore, in all likelihood, Jane is overly tired, stressed out, and overworked. ‘ {Stab'étical 6 [hymn L" Mew fimlmf ._,..__,,\ fl... S?! W MCC€9§ W M6 s‘fiW 2% of fire/“QW- féerieml Hotfital 7% fipaé’zx‘ble 19M 72am 2}; me 0,13%”, 4. Of t thousands of bird that have been examined in numerous habitats all over the world, it has been discovered that 5% have feathers. This gives very good reason to think that the great majority of birds have feathers. emltzmfim 5”, 1 . g ladeclkfifiwl jg? SucceasFAi/laum 75” of birds WidzfiW/b makes 0 W CWCKOMM}? 19/“). flat?“ Myflfi if; 013 him/5 Amt/e, {Wm €Mf£€$§7éft / 5. Jones had a strong motive to murder Smith/ Jones had an opportunity to murder Smith. The murder weapon has Jones’ fingerprints on it. Jones knew wherethe murder weapon'was stored. Jones was psychologically capable of killing Smith. Cflicllugvepronfirevealsihatjnneswasimm anothermcyountry onwthefiday that Srnith was murdered. Therefore, Jones murdered Smith. MW“ Wueibtmfiwvfi L“ 2 unsucceséfid L/ Santa“ premises yr lpfléiffvely mil/Q #9 CO CAM/0n (9" A mse # f x Q I an {0 will?) $116 W [776 i; a! C dgg‘ue / Pm»? reveals Jones Was in @411wa 24 it £7 0/: “the €97 W gmyéh wow murdered 9/59 negatively relate to W“ premise. g_ v VI. For each of the following arguments’show how the conclusion follows from the premises .w-m by a series of valid inferences. Be sure to®he lines frommmfififi'mfifiyand give its justification. Each is worth three marks. YOU DO NOT HAVE TO DEDUCE ANY LINES IN THIS SECTION. V 1. 1. P a ~Q M21) v S L/ 3. ~Q » R / v4.S~T v5.('B)-R-—l.?> HS (/ Min—2.45 CD viQ V1P~s \/4.p «4.2 MT 5.S ~34”? Vliyiduce the line or lines'jlggss/aby to show the validity of the followmg arguments. Be sure to Jte» he lines from which each conclusion follows and give its justification. Each is worth fonrmarks. 1. FAQ L1 Pb" Q ~QVR VJ/LQVR if.-- “i “R \ ~P V4 mg) 23 MT“ 5. twp LAM/1T / 2. :(SPoQ)-v~R ~R->S v9“ mg QvT V3 442 95 R 23; MT V5 P-Q 1.4M \/6‘ Q Séimp 7‘ QVT 9 ADD\// ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/07/2010 for the course PHI phi1101 taught by Professor Markbrown during the Fall '09 term at University of Ottawa.

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phitest2 - NAME: STUDENT NUMBER: PI-II 1101 R: REASONING...

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