ADM1300 Final Study Notes
Motivation: Psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s behaviour in an
organization, a person’s level of effort, and a person’s level of persistence.
Intrinsically Motivated Behaviour: Behaviour that is performed for its own sake.
Extrinsically Motivated Behaviour: Behaviour that is performed to acquire material or social
rewards or to avoid punishment.
Need: A requirement or necessity for survival and well-being.
Needs Theories: Theories of motivation that focus on what needs people are trying to satisfy
at work and what outcomes will satisfy those needs.
Inputs from Organizational
Outcomes Received by
Time, effort, education,
Contributes to organiza-
Pay, job security, benefits,
experience, skills, knowledge,
tional efficiency, effective-
vacation time, job satisfac-
ness, and the attainment
tion, autonomy, responsibility,
feeling of accomplishment,
pleasure of doing interesting
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: An arrangement of five needs that, according to Maslow,
motivate behaviour. Maslow proposed that the lowest level of unmet needs is the prime
motivator and that only one level of needs is motivational at a time.
Self-actualization needs – realize one’s full potential
Esteem needs – feel good about oneself, receive recognition
Belongingness needs (social) – social interaction, love
Safety needs – security, stability, safe environment
Physiological needs – basic needs to survive
(most basic or compelling)
Herzberg’s Motivater-Hygiene Theory: A needs theory that distinguishes between motivator
needs (related to the nature of the work itself) and hygiene needs (related to the physical
and psychological context in which the work is performed). Herzberg proposed that
motivator needs must be met in order for motivation and job satisfaction to be high.
Relationship with supervisor and peers