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9-3-09 - Psychology 152 Class Notes Go to the bookstore and...

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Psychology 152 – Class Notes – 9/3/09 Go to the bookstore and purchase the lab manual – it will help you in preparing for the exams! Lab manual has a lot of detail we covered in lightly in class: Make sure you read the lab manual and understand it Understand the definitions PHOTOCOPY THE PAGES and then write Make the data table and graphs on computer Reinforcers – increase the frequency of the behavior, regardless of whether or not the reinforcer is added or removed from the environment Punishers – always decrease the frequency of the behavior. Primary reinforcers: Food Sex – most powerful reinforcer These are not necessarily needed for life They are the product of natural selection at LEVEL 1 (level 1 natural selection) Ambient temperature (hot and cold) unconditioned reinforcer or punisher Drugs act as primary reinforcers or o Drug abuse is solely the result of operant conditioning drugs (illegal drugs) are extremely powerful reinforcers o Cocaine – EXTREMELY POWERFUL REINFORCERS To TEST this idea, you implement a contingency; if the rate presses the lever, then the drug is administered. It is now a reinforcer Primary reinforcers between species are OFTEN DIFFERENT: You have to be careful about which specific reinforcers apply to which species Even though the system of reinforcers and punishers stays the same, the actual specific reinforcers and punishers are different across species
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Drug Abuse (for the first time) Example: When you have two students who take a big exam: one passes, the other fails. They go drink. One is happy, one is unhappy. One drinks cause he’s happy, one drinks because he is sad
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