9-29-09 - Biology 330 Class Notes 9/29/09 PREVIOUSLY:...

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Biology 330 – Class Notes – 9/29/09 PREVIOUSLY: Single population, whether or not it fluctuates Populations change based on the factors in the environment We will look at the effect of another population on the original population: Predation Competition o Both have a large effect on a population One of the factors that might cause instability in a population that is approaching carrying capacity: Predator/Prey cycles Limit cycles Time Lag Vagaries in the environment Predator/Prey cycles Regular oscillations in predator and prey populations Predation: Predation - consumption of living material, living material – reduces the prey population Detritivery - consumption of dead material o Once the prey is dead, the remains will degrade This actually helps in the recycling of nutrients True Predator – outright kill and consume many prey individuals These are your lions, tigers, Snow Leopard!, whales kill and consume many individuals Grazers – Consume parts (rarely lethal) of MANY prey individuals This might compromise the organism’s ability White tailed deer Mosquitoes o Unrelated organisms, but they have the same effect Parasites – Consume parts (rarely lethal) of a SINGLE individual Primary host – main host Intermediary host – used to get to a primary host
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Parasitoids – Adults free living - eggs/juveniles are lethal parasites for a single host Ball galls – the maggot eats creates a node on the plant o A wasp comes along and lays eggs INSIDE THE MAGGOT the eggs then pupate and kill the host (the maggot) Monophagus - A predator with a single prey item Oligophagous – A predator with a few prey items Polyphagous – A predator with many prey items * Just because you can eat many foods, doesn’t mean All predators have a limited set of prey items due to evolutionary specialization To be good at getting some food or prey items, you have to sacrifice some food options This leads to limited diet, but the predator is better able Many advantages to being polyphagous: No single food item meets your nutritional requirements Many food items contain toxins – eating just one prey item that is maybe toxic WILL NOT HURT YOU IN LOW QUANTITIES o However if you eat a whole lot of the same prey that is toxic, that will lead to the buildup of toxins o The body burden of any particular toxin will NOT have a negative effect since
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9-29-09 - Biology 330 Class Notes 9/29/09 PREVIOUSLY:...

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