May_12_slides [Compatibility Mode]

May_12_slides [Compatibility Mode] - May 12, 2009 Today,...

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May 12, 2009 • Today, we’re going to blitz through chapter 4, including: – Fallacies of Relevance – Fallacies of Defective Induction – Fallacies of Presumption – Fallacies of Ambiguity • Note that you are only responsible for some of the particular fallacies. I expect you to know what each of these four kinds of fallacies are, and also to know specific fallacies that we’ll talk about.
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What’s a Fallacy? • A well-reasoned argument or line of thought is supposed to get us from true things we know about the world to true things we didn’t before we sat down and thought about it. A fallacy is a typical pattern of error in human reasoning – a mistake that we, as human beings, are rone to making when we reason things through. They prone to making when we reason things through. are errors in our own thinking or in arguments presented to us that are not easy for us to spot. • By naming them and learning what they are, we can learn to recognize them, helping us to see bad reasoning in our own thought and in the arguments of others. • Some deductive fallacies are strong inductive arguments
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4.3 Fallacies of Relevance • There are many different kinds of fallacies. Certain fallacies share a common nature. Fallacies of relevance (of which there are many kinds) all lack a connection between one or more premises and the conclusion of the argument committing the fallacy. The different fallacies re: are: • Appeal to Emotion (“ad populum”): When an argument, overtly or through subtle emotive language, relies on appeals to the feelings of the audience, it is committing an ad populum. A good argument works to establish the truth of the conclusion being argued for (as objectively as possible), and feelings can do nothing to establish the truth or falsity of the conclusion of the argument.
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Fallacies of Relevance (con’t) – An appeal to emotion also covers cases where what is being appealed to is a general sense of popularity or social desirability. That the prettier people, for example, use Trident brand toothpaste does little to establish it as a quality toothpaste. Advertisements are notoriously heavy with appeals to the emotion when a good argument would better establish their laims. claims. – Appeals to the emotions can be based on appeals to duty, to a sense of obligation to family, to a desire to belong or fit in, to be popular, successful, to seem wealthy, to be happy. Appeals to emotions can also play on fear, greed, and negative emotions • “Red Herring”: An argument in which a point is raised
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This note was uploaded on 01/08/2010 for the course ME 310 taught by Professor Lwonard during the Spring '09 term at University College Cayman Islands.

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May_12_slides [Compatibility Mode] - May 12, 2009 Today,...

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